Mind Control

Published by MindTech Sweden

MORE INFORMATIONS OF MIND CONTROL


MIND WEAPON DARPA – nano technology NAVAL – research laboratory satellite MARYLAND -

MIND WEAPON

DARPA – nano technology

NAVAL – research laboratory satellite

MARYLAND – super computers

PHILIPS LABS – laser test of energy

NAVAL -

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

MIND WEAPON

DARPA – nano technology

NAVAL – research laboratory satellite

MARYLAND – super computers

PHILIPS LABS . laser test of energy

NAVAL – research laboratory complex Washington

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

1. SATELLITE âMIND CONTROLá – BIOELECTRIC WEAPON

2. BRAIN-MACHINE INTERFACE

3. EUROPA – TARGETED INDIVIDUALS

4. SATELLITE SPIES . THE SHOCKING TRUTH

5. DIRECTED ENERGY PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY

6. A PILOT STUDY

7. PENTAGON HAVE LASERS THAT PUT VOICES IN YOUR HEAD

8. NANOTECHNOLOGY

9. MILITARY NANOTECHNOLOGY

10.NATO – THE SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

11.NANOTECHNOLOGY IN EUROPE

12.MILITARY SPACE PROGRAMS

13.SPACE WEAPONS

14.HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM

15.SCIENTISTS TO STUDY SYNTHETIC TELEPATHY

16.MURI – SYNTHETIC THELEPATY

17.10 MODERN METHODS OF MIND CONTROL

18.SECRET TEST

19.NATO – GENOCIDE IN AFGHANISTAN

20.SYNTHETIC THELEPATHY – ALAN MILLER

21.BRAIN TRANSMITTERS

22.SECRET CODE OF THE BRAIN

23.NON-LETHAL WEAPONS – EUROPA

24.BIOEFFECTS OF NON-LETHAL WEAPONS

25.MORE INFORMATIONS OF MIND CONTROL

26.PROTECTION OF “MIND CONTROL”

Super computers PHILIPS LABS . laser test of energy NAVAL – research laboratory complex Washington TABLE OF CONTENTS:

1. SATELLITE âMIND CONTROLá – BIOELECTRIC WEAPON 2. BRAIN-MACHINE INTERFACE 3. EUROPA – TARGETED INDIVIDUALS 4. SATELLITE SPIES . THE SHOCKING TRUTH 5. DIRECTED ENERGY PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY 6. A PILOT STUDY 7. PENTAGON HAVE LASERS THAT PUT VOICES IN YOUR HEAD 8. NANOTECHNOLOGY 9. MILITARY NANOTECHNOLOGY 10.NATO – THE SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 11.NANOTECHNOLOGY IN EUROPE 12.MILITARY SPACE PROGRAMS 13.SPACE WEAPONS 14.HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM 15.SCIENTISTS TO STUDY SYNTHETIC TELEPATHY 16.MURI – SYNTHETIC THELEPATY 17.10 MODERN METHODS OF MIND CONTROL 18.SECRET TEST 19.NATO – GENOCIDE IN AFGHANISTAN 20.SYNTHETIC THELEPATHY – ALAN MILLER 21.BRAIN TRANSMITTERS 22.SECRET CODE OF THE BRAIN 23.NON-LETHAL WEAPONS – EUROPA 24.BIOEFFECTS OF NON-LETHAL WEAPONS 25.MORE INFORMATIONS OF MIND CONTROL 26.PROTECTION OF “MIND CONTROL” 1. SATELLITE âMIND CONTROLá -

BIOELECTRIC WEAPON SOME INFORMATIONS

“The events at the international political scene, in the last few years, confirm that the concept of remote control of human brain is a matter of negotiations. In January 1999 the European Parliament passed a resolution where it calls for an international convention introducing a global ban on all developments and deployments of weapons which might enable any form of manipulation of human beings.” MIND CONTROL WEAPON 9.september 2008 The term gMind controlh basically means covert attempts to influence the thoughts and behavior of human beings against their will (or without their knowledge), particularly when surveillance of an individual is used as an integral part of such influencing and the term gPsychotronic Tortureh comes from psycho (of psychological) and electronic.

This is actually a very sophisticated form of remote technological torture that slowly invalidates and incapacitates a person. These invisible and non-traceable technological assaults on human beings are done in order to destroy someone psychologically and physiologically. Actually, as par scientific resources, the human body, much like a computer, contains myriad data processors. They include, but are not limited to, the chemical-electrical activity of the brain, heart, and peripheral nervous system, the signals sent from the cortex region of the brain to other parts of our body, the tiny hair cells in the inner ear that process auditory signals, and the light-sensitive retina and cornea of the eye that process visual activity. We are on the threshold of an era in which these data processors of the human body may be manipulated or debilitated.

Definition of psychotronic (psycho-physical) weapons Psychotronic Weapons (PF- weapons) this is the totality of all possible methods and means (techno-genic, suggestive, pharmacological, paranormal, complexes, and others) of hidden, forced influences on the psyche of a person for the purpose of modifying his onsciousness, behavior and health for what is desired in the way of influencing aspects of control…” This is not only dangerous, this is deadly!” The First phase is the harassment/surveillance program.

They use Echelon, Tempest, microchips, implants, see through wall radar, obtain informants, neighbors, and co-conspirators to harass, discredit, and harm an individual. Victims loose their families, jobs, homes, and cars. Ultimate goal to destroy a persons life which will isolate them from family, friends. The isolation is needed to have access to the person to conduct many of the experiments on them. The second phase is the assaults of Directed Energy Weapons. After a victim becomes isolated from everyone in the world. The victim now having feelings of regret, remorse, of loss, trauma, and are drained and broken emotionally and physically. During this time many have been implanted with microchips. Many begin experiencing extreme pain to their head. Some hear voices. Then pain is delivered to various other parts of their bodies.

The pain is delivered by Directed Energy Weapons. Directed Energy Weapons. Some of the weapons were known as non-lethal weapons. They use such weapons as extremely low frequency Elf electromagnetic weapons (which has been used in mind control), acoustics, harmonics (which have been used as a mind control technique), ultrasound, microwave audiograms, microwave pulsed, and radio frequency. Another electromagnetic energy beam can be used to induce “considerable agitation and muscular activity” or “induce muscular weakness and lethargy” this weapon is know as Ultra High Frequency EM. Psychological warfare tactics are being used against unsuspecting citizens to destroy their jobs, their families and their lives. The perpetrators will stop at nothing. Their objective is to utterly destroy a person, very often resulting in a person taking his or her own life, or ending up in a mental hospital. This has been taking place for years and nothing is ever said about it. Nothing is ever written about it. Some people also experience electronic harassment. This is extremely distressing, painful and invasive, and feels like one’s mind and body is undergoing constant rape, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The technology used to do this is unknown, but hundreds of victims report the same physical sensations and experiences. Many take their lives in an attempt to escape the horror. The technology involves the use of electromagnetic waves of various frequencies to achieve different results. Some frequencies will make a person tired, while others may cause confusion or memory loss.

“Electronic harassment” or e-harassment is a catch-all term used to describe a group of circumstances which a large number of people are currently experiencing in common. Saturday, Februar 19, 2011 PSYCHOTRONIC WEAPONS . BRAIN MANIPULATION FROM A DISTANCE In October 2010, the congressman Denis J. Kucinich introduced in the American Congress A bill, obliging the American president to get engaged in the negotiations aimed at the ban of space based weapons. In this bill the definition of a weapon system includes: any other unacknowledged or as yet undeveloped means inflicting death or injury on, od damaging or destroying, a person(or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person) through the use of land-based, sea-based,or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations or the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of cush persons or populations. As in all legislative acts quoted in this article the bill counts with sound, light or electromagnetic stimulation of human brain.Psychotronic fweapons remain, at least for a layman uninformed of secret military research, in the sphere of science fiction, since so far none of the published scientific experiments was presented in the way which would allow for its replication. That it is feasible to manipulate human behavior with the use of subliminal, either sound or visual, messages is now generally known. This is why in most of the countries the use of such technologies, without consent of the user, is banned. Devices using light for the stimulation of the brain show another way how the light flashing in certain frequencies could be used for the manipulation of human psychic life.

As for the sound, a report on the device transmitting a beam of sound waves, which can hear only persons at whon the beam of sound waves is targeted, appeared last year in the world newspapers. The beam is formed by a combination of sound and ultrasound waves which causes that a person targeted by this beam hears the sound inside of his head. Such a perception could easily convince the human being that it is mentally ill. The acts presented in this article suggest that with the develpment of technology and knowledge of the functioning of human brain new ways of manipulation of human mind keep emerging. One of them seem to be the electromagnetic energy. 2.BRAIN-MACHINE INTERFACE Robert Asher, Sandia National Laboratories June 2002,Arlington, Virginia Increasingly, the human is being asked to take in multisensory inputs, to make near-instantaneous decisions on these inputs, and to apply control forces to multitask and control machines of various sorts. The multitasking, multisensor environment stresses the human, yet, more and more s/he being asked to operate in such an environment. As an example, the visionary project on uninhabited combat vehicles discusses an increased workload in piloting combat vehicles. DARPA has a brain-machine interface program about to start.

This program has as its goal human ability to control complex entities by sending control actions without the delay for muscle activation. The major application for this program is control of aircraft. The intent is to take brain signals and use them in a control strategy and then to impart feedback signals back into the brain. The DARPA program could be extended to include a broader range of potential impact by including the possibility of other applications: learning and training, automobile control, air traffic control, decision-making, remote sensing of stress, and entertainment. Learning and training might be implemented as information coded into brain signals and then input into the person. Air traffic control in increasingly busy skies can use such capability: the controller has multiple inputs from multiple aircraft. These can be input into his brain in a 3-D aspect and an alertness signal used to gwake him uph when his attention drifts beyond acceptable limits. Not only intellectual data might be passed from one person to another without speaking, but also emotional and volitional information. Decisionmaking may become more precise as emotional, fatigue, and other cognitive states can be appraised prior to making a critical decision. The potential impact on automobile safety is great. The driver can have quicker control of his automobile (Fig. E.15), allowing for safer driving while reducing the car-tocar spacing on congested highways. This would help alleviate highway congestion and the need for more highways. Furthermore, it would allow for safer driving as driver attention can be measured and the driver galertedh or told in some manner to pay attention to his or her driving when attention wanders beyond safe margins. It can allow for detection of driver impairment so that the vehicle may be made either not to start or to call emergency. Direct connection into the brain could yield a revolution in entertainment, as people may be gimmersed,h MATRIX-style, into the midst of a movie or educational show.

Can you imagine the impact of being immersed in a fully 3-D audio-visual simulation of the battle of Gettysburg? Hands-off control of an automobile through a device for reading and implanting brain waves. Role of Converging Technologies Nano. The brain-machine interface effort will require nanotechnologies in order to make the required experimental measurements and to implement the devices for both receiving brain electromagnetic signals and transmitting signals back into the brain. Bio. This is a highly biological, neuroscience effort, which requires detailed understanding and measurements of the brainfs electromagnetic activity. It requires a significant measurement protocol. Cogno. This effort by its very nature will directly affect the cognitive aspects of the individual by externally applied electromagnetic fields by implanting information for the individual. Thus, this effort can lead to increased learning and other cognitive results. Transforming Strategy to Reach the Vision To achieve these goals, enter a partnership with DARPA to fund additional technologies and applications that would enhance the brain-machine interface effort. Work should be focused on the goals of using the technologies for cognitional aspects, understanding memory, and learning brain function to be able to design devices to increase their capabilities. Estimated Implications This effort would yield a technological revolution, in applications from computers to entertainment. It would give the United States a global competitive advantage while yielding solutions to specific domestic problems such as air traffic control and highway safety in increasingly crowded environments. It will revolutionize education. This effort will yield devices that may be applied to a number of activities and be sufficiently small as to be wearable in a car or at home. 3.EUROPA – TARGETED INDIVIDUALS The human mind has never been a simple project.

Because of its complexity and plasticity, it has yet not been completely understood. Under the dark ages of brain research, scientists have nevertheless learned how to stimulate and partially control the human brain’s responses. At any time it has been done, it has caused pain and suffering for the owner of the brain: the human subject. Backed up by the “best” scientists, sponsored by the military and the secret service, thousands of individuals have their lives destroyed in the quest of developing technologies that are not science fiction anymore. The human brain, is seen as a computer where information can be downloaded and from where information can be uploaded. Cloning the individual’s brain and nervous system is the only hope today’s scientists have to understand the human brain and develop advanced artificial intelligence and synthetic telepathy, allowing people to communication by thought, not speech. The European and World countries governments, faced with this “challenge” are unable to protect their citizens against the greatest possible violations of their human rights. There are no excuses whatsoever for researchers to destroy people’s and entire families lives. Under the secrecy of “national security”, they violate human rights conventions and every universal human right a human being is born with, going deep into the very consciousness of the person that is affected.

Many human rights campaigners from around the world have spent years working on countless books, videos, websites, rallies and symposiums which highlight these matters. These include efforts by prominent persons like Dr Nick Begich, Dr Rauni Kilde (ex chief medical officer for Finland) and well known author Gloria Naylor. To date, all of it has been ignored by the criminally owned/controlled media. However, most importantly, there has been open condemnation of these methods by major political entities and I ask you to focus on thesec 1. The United Nations . UNIDIR – (The UN Institute for Disarmament Research) officially recognised a range of weapons (both lethal and non-lethal), including the ones previously listed, and recommended that they ALL be banned as weapons of potential mass destruction. Naturally, the press releases and media guides that they issued on this matter were totally ignored by the mainstream media. This media treachery is the reason the public is unaware of the dangers. 2. The European Parliament – In January 1999, the European Parliament passed a resolution where it calls ” for an international convention introducing a global ban on all development and deployment of weapons which might enable any form of manipulation of human beings. It is our conviction that this ban can not be implemented without the global pressure of the informed general public on the governments. Our major objective is to get across to the general public the real threat which these weapons represent for human rights and democracy and to apply pressure on the governments and parliaments around the world to enact legislature which would prohibit the use of these devices to both government and private organisations as well as individuals.” (Plenary Sessions/ EuroParliament, 1999) 3. US Federal politician Dennis Kucinich – In October 2001, Congressman Dennis J. Kucinich introduced a bill to the House of Representatives which, it was hoped would be extremely important in the fight to expose and stop psycho-electronic mind control experimentation on involuntary, non-consensual citizens. The Bill was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committee on Armed Services and International Relations.

In the original bill a ban was sought on ‘exotic weapons’ including electronic, psychotronic or information weapons, chemtrails, particle beams, plasmas, electromagnetic radiation, extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultra low frequency (ULF) energy radiation, or mind control technologies. Despite the inclusion of a prohibition of the basing of weapons in space, and the use of weapons to destroy objects or damage objects in space, there is no mention in the revised bill of any of the aforementioned mind-invasive weaponry, nor of the use of satellite or radar or other energy based technology for deploying or developing technology designed for deployment against the minds of human beings. [the original Bill was called The Space Preservation Act, 2001 (HR 2977) it was reintroduced as The Space Preservation Act, 2002 (HR 3616 )]. Kucinichfs efforts mirrored similar attempts made some years earlier by ex astronaut, Sen. John Glenn. 4. US Federal politician Jim Guest – recently wrote to all members of the US legislature asking for help for the countless victims of electronic harassment/torture (agency black operations being secreted from congressional scrutiny thus allowing corrupt officers to frame/torture innocents). To date, nothing concrete has come of this approach. 5. French National Bioethics Committee – In January 1998, an annual public meeting of the French National Bioethics Committee was held in Paris. Its chairman, Jean-Pierre Changeux, a neuroscientist at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, told the meeting that “advances in cerebral imaging make the scope for invasion of privacy immense. Although the equipment needed is still highly specialized, it will become commonplace and capable of being used at a distance. That will open the way for abuses such as invasion of personal liberty, control of behaviour and brainwashing.

These are far from being science-fiction concerns.and constitute “a serious risk to society.” (“Nature.” Vol 391, 1998) 4.SATELLITE SPIES . THE SHOCKING TRUTH TECHNOLOGY ACTUAL CRIMINAL USE POTENTIAL GOOD USE ECHELON SATELLITES satellite/computer monitoring of all telecommunications worldwide) To intercept conversations, emails etc. To steal ideas and harass targets (writers, whistleblowers etc) To monitor and stop terrorists and other criminals AUDIO-VISUAL SATELLITES (Allowing 24/7 surveillance of anyone, even in their homes) To gather blackmailfriendly material; to oppress targets and other citizens; to feed results to media/political criminals To monitor and stop terrorists and other criminals INTERACTIVE TRANSECTOR DEVICE (Sat-based . Pat US #4893815 16-1-90 L. Rowan) To spy on political targets etc by finding, locking onto and tracking those victims so as to terrorise/torture them To monitor and stop terrorists and other criminals METHODS OF ALTERING CONSCIOUSNESS (Sat-based . Pat US #5123899, 23/6/92 J. Gall + Pat US #5289438, 22/2/94 J. Gall) To alter targets moods by stimulating the brain to exhibit certain rhythms (angry, sad, sleepy etc); EEG cloning/feedback To help the emotionally distressed BRAIN WAVE ANALYSERS (Remote neural monitoring & electronic brain linking, via sat . Pat US #6011991, 1/4/00 A. Mardirossian) To read the minds of targets; to rob, rape, terrorise and oppress completely yet covertly. Experiments in mind control, AI & cloning are also carried out To help interrogate criminals NEUROPHONES (Sat-based . Pat US #3393279 16/7/68 P. Flanagan + Pat US #3647970 7/3/72 P. Flanagan) To make the target hear voices via the laser/MW/R.wave direction of sound thatfs been converted to electrical impulse to go straight to the targets brain To communicate with the deaf, stroke victims etc NOTE: Alone, or in conjunction with subliminal and visual technologies, as well as role playing etc, these technologies can be used for trickery including apparent schizophrenic episodes, paranormal or galienh encounters and much more. 5.DIRECTED ENERGY PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY These Directed Energy (DE) internships are concerned with the research, development and testing of high energy laser and high power microwave components, systems and effects at Federal laboratories and universities at sites around the country. Most of these positions are made possible by funding from the High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office. Internship Qualifications These paid summer internship positions are available for currently enrolled undergraduate and graduate students at U.S. colleges and universities. Positions are open to U.S. citizens only. The disciplines include but are not limited to these: . science – physics, chemistry . engineering – electrical, optical, chemical, mechanical, and materials . Mathematics and computer science Position Descriptions Generally, interns will work for the summer in a laboratory or university under the tutelage of full time researchers. Work may include experimental, theoretical, or computer modeling and simulation, depending on the position. Specific work assignments, hours and pay will vary.

Organizations The organizations below are expected to offer these internships in 2012. Advertising for open positions will begin in December 2011. . 711 Human Performance Wing – Texas . Air Force Institute of Technology – Ohio . Air Force Research Laboratory – Hawaii, New Mexico . Army Research Laboratory- Maryland . Naval Postgraduate School – California . Naval Research Laboratory (satellite) – Washington, D.C., Florida . US Army Space and Missile Defense Command – Alabama INTERMITTENT VORTICITY, POWER SPECTRAL SCALING AND DYNAMICAL MEASURES ON RESTING BRAIN MAGNETIC FIELD FLUCTUATIONS 6.A Pilot Study Arnold J. Mandell, Karen A. Selz, Tom Holroyd, Linsay Rutter and Richard Coppola NIMH Core MEG Laboratory and Cielo Institute Supported in part by the Fetzer-Franklin Trust, DARPA (Microelectronics) and the Space and Naval Warfare Center The Eyes Closed, Resting Record The time dynamics of global brain electromagnetic field activity, recorded in humans as continuous, eyes closed resting MEG (and EEG) records, are regarded by some as reflections of physiologically and psychologically relevant, emergent macroscopic behavior of nonlinearly coupled, cooperative brain systems (Basar et al., 1983; Bucolo et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2003; Friedrich et al., 1989; Haken, 2 1996; Mandell, 1983a). Others, more involved in neuronal current source localization studies of task or state-related magneto-encephalographic records (Cornwell et al., 2008; Fife et al., 2002; Garolera et al., 2007; Nolte et al., 2004) have treated the globally distributed, spontaneous neuronal current generated, brain magnetic field activity as gchigh-ranked (leading eigenvalued) background activityc interfering magnetic fields generated from (not relevant) spontaneous brain activities…intrinsic brain noisech (Sekihara et al., 1996; Sekihara et al., 2008; Sekihara et al., 2006).

Covariance matrix-derived beamformers from several minutes of the eyes-closed resting record have been used in gprewhitening techniquesh, adding noise in order to get around linear dependency in the matrix if it is too low dimensional and to minimize interfering low dimensional intrinsic brain magnetic field noise (Sekihara et al., 2008; Zumer et al., 2007; Zumer et al., 2008). Another view of spontaneous magnetic field fluctuations have been influenced by studies of spatial (neuroanatomical) brain localization using concomitant fMRI techniques. They have suggested the existence of spontaneous, regional, above baseline activity in the normal eyes closed, resting state. This activity is particularly pronounced in medial prefrontal, parietal and both posterior and anterior cingulate, and is suppressed during goal-directed behavior (Damoiseaus et al., 2006; Griecius et al., 2003; Gusnard & Raichle, 3 2001). Activity in this gnetworkh has been labeled gdefault activationh by Raichle (Raichle ME et al., 2001). The many second time scale of fMRI imaging demonstrated density variations that were characteristic for the normal eyes closed, resting condition (Biswal et al., 1995). Importantly, the spontaneous activity in the resting state also appears to involve neural network activity across several time scales (Honey et al., 2007). In two state, task-no task, experimental designs, the resting activity, gdefault activation, h has been speculated to reflect spontaneous, task unrelated, images and thoughts (Greicius & Menon, 2004; Greicius et al., 2004; Raichle ME et al., 2001; Vincent et al., 2007).

These transient mental events in the eyes closed, resting condition have also been called gdaydreamingh (Singer, 1966 ), gtask-unrelated-thoughts,h TUTs(Giambra, 1989), gunrest at resth(Buckner & Vincent, 2007), gwandering minds,h and gstimulus independent thoughth, SITs (Gilbert et al., 2007). Psychologists that have studied inner life subjectively, William James (James, 1902) and Sigmund Freud (Freud, 1914/1955 among many others, have focused on these autonomously arising transient streams of free associations and imagery. James analogized them to the turbulent eddies of the hydrodynamic flow of consciousness which he believed these transients to be among the universal properties of the conscious human brain. Examinations of a subjectfs spontaneous 4 internal activity as exteriorized by the psychoanalytic instruction, gcsay everything that comes to your mindch has been central to the practice of psychoanalysis for over a Century {Fenichel, 1945 #8190). It appears that the ostensibly resting gdefault brain activityh in the gdefault networkh persists in monkeys through anesthesia-induced changes in states of consciousness (Vincent et al., 2007). This result is consistent with a several decade history of research using priming, evoked potentials and task recovery paradigms to demonstrate implicit, working memorial events that occur during even surgical anesthesia (Jordon et al., 2000). The implied relationship between 2-5 second epochs of MEG activation such as that seen below in Fig. 5 as intermittent helical vortices (we call them strudels) and TUT or SIT-like subjective phenomena must remain entirely speculative. General Premise and Hypothesis It is the underlying premise of this pilot study of intrinsic brain magnetic field fluctuations that they manifest signatory patterns in transformations and measures which can discriminate among global brain states. We examine this premise by partially isolating and qualitatively and quantitatively characterizing 12.5, 54, 180 or 240 seconds of eyes closed, resting spontaneous magnetic field activity in ten resting controls and ten medicated schizophrenic probands. From our previous 5 work in brain-related physiological systems (Mandell, 1979; Mandell, 1983b; Mandell, 1987; Mandell et al., 1982; Mandell & Selz, 1993), a more specific hypothesis is suggested: Compared with controls, magnetic field fluctuations in schizophrenic patients will demonstrate relatively higher values for indices of emergent dynamical structure and relatively lower values for a variety of measures reflecting the dynamical entropy gused uph in their formation (Mandell & Selz, 1997c; Selz & Mandell, 1991; Selz et al., 1995; Smotherman et al., 1996). A MEG Derived Data Series: Symmetric Sensor Difference Sequences, ssds(i) Ten normal controls and ten age- and sex-matched schizophrenic proband subjects (see Subjects below) were studied in the National Institutes of Mental Healthfs Core MEG Laboratory in Bethesda, MD. A 275 channel, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID radial gradiometer system from CTF Systems Inc. Port Coquitlam, BC, Canada (Anninos et al., 1986; Cohen, 1972; Rutter et al., 2009; Weinberg et al., 1984) was used in data collection (see Magnetoencephalographic Data Collection below). 6 Our approach to MEG-derived signals abrogates source orientation, localization and inverse problem tools such as leadfield matrices (Dale & Sereno, 1993; Hamalainen et al., 1993), adaptive synthetic aperture magnetometer, SAM, beamformer techniques, or projection onto Talairached MRI image reconstructed volumes (Dalal et al., 2008; Dalal et al., 2004). For these approaches to this data set, see Rutter et al (Rutter et al., 2009). In their study of spontaneous activity in the eyes closed, resting state, they found a statistically significant decrement in the amplitudes of MEG recorded posterior regional gamma (30-70Hz+) activity in schizophrenic patients compared with normal controls (Rutter et al., 2009). In that study as well as these, a high pass, 0.6 Hz, as well as 60, 120, 180 and 240 Hz notch filters were routinely applied to the individual sensor records before the computation of the sensor pair ssds(i), (the difference between the two sensor). It is our presupposition that the gcspontaneous activityc all over the brainch (Sekihara et al., 2008) reflects global and neurophysiologically meaningful patterns of complex neuronal activity-generated magnetic field fluctuations in interaction with MEG SQUID sensors (Barone A & G., 1982; Braiman & Wiesenfeld, 1994). A magnetic flux applied to the SQUID magnetometer, gives rise to a circulating current, which in turn modulates the inductance of the autonomously oscillatory Josephson junctions (Landberg et al., 1966; Levi et al., 1977). The great sensitivity of the SQUID devices permits measuring changes in magnetic field associated with even a single flux quantum. 7 If a constant biasing current is maintained in the SQUID device, it is the voltage which is modulated by changes in phase at junctions. Phase at Josephson junctions is sensitive to the quanta of magnetic flux. We dismiss a common generalization of many MEG practitioners that most or all local polarities of the intrinsic magnetic field noise gcancel out.h In the context of the somewhat analogous magnetic dynamo problem: gcgiven a flow in a conducting fluid, will a small seed magnetic field amplify exponentially with timech (Finn & Ott, 1988)–we show below that ssds(i)s do– it was argued that the magnetic flux loops nonuniformly stretch and fold into themselves manifesting only partial cancellation and diffuse fine scale oscillations, in a process which can be quantified by a fractional cancellation exponent (Ott et al., 1992) and measures made on temporal-spatial intermittency. In addition, if some currents run parallel to magnetic fields, which is expected to be the case with poorly localized, multiple neocortical neuronal sources, the magnetic field lines may follow a variety of dynamical shapes in which the magnetic pressure gradient is balanced by the magnetic tension. For example, there may not be any Lorentz force, J x B = 0, leading to a measurable field configuration without any net electrical current at all. We thus donft infer a particular neuronal current source (or event) for the data series. Characterizing the fluctuations allows the elucidation of patterns in the brainfs global magnetic field flux dynamics without reference to anatomical location (Clarke, 1994). 8 example, we find a common dynamical pattern often involves intermittently appearing, multiple time scale helical vortices. We call them unwindable strudels lest they lead to the brain being called a critically loaded sand pile that spawns avalanches (Beggs & Plenz, 2005; Levina et al., 2007)). In comparison with the several second time resolution of fMRI, the MEGfs superior temporal resolution, ~ 1 ms, combined with its gunderdeterminedh weaknesses with respect to specific brain localization when used alone (Hamalainen et al., 1993; Im et al., 2005; Lee et al., 2007; Sarvas, 1987; Uutela et al., 1998), suited our goal of characterizing magnetic field (rather than inferred neuronal) properties of what has been called intrinsic physiological brain noise (Nagarajan et al., 2006; Sekihara et al., 1997; Sekihara et al., 2005). The use of ssds(i) exploits the hemispheric symmetry of the human brain (Geschwind, 1970) and serves several purposes: (1) It imposes a natural gauge (distance serves as a traveling, local normalization procedure; (3) The ssdi(i) reduces the penetrance of electromagnetic field correlates of blink, cough, and movement as well as the cardiac and respiratory artifacts that both symmetric sensors generally share; (4) Using ssds(i) instead of the raw MEG time series tends to cancel the symmetrically shared generic MEG (and EEG) ƒ¢, ƒ¦, ƒ¿, ƒÀ, and ƒÁ modes, as well as other patterns of bihemispheric covariance; (5) Advantageous from the magnetic field point of view is the fact that using ssds(i) makes issues of 9 neuronal current source location moot; ; the spatial sensitivity profile of the ssds(i) considered as a virtual sensor typically covers a large volume of the brain. The techniques similar to that used here of paired sensor difference series, ssds(i), have been used to reduce or remove the mean and double or more the higher moments in analyses of nonstationary neural membrane conductance noise (Conti et al., 1980; DeFelice, 1977; Sigworth, 1981). NAVAL – research laboratory experiments (NRL) Florida DARPA FUTURE – HISTORICAL Behavior PROTECTING HUMAN ASSETS Bio–]Silico Interface Brain technology ENHANCED HUMAN PERFORMANCE Energy transduction Cell & Tissue ENHANCED SYSTEM PERFORMAMCE Geonomisc & Engieneering Proteomics 7.Pentagon report investigated lasers that put voices in your head February 18, 2008 by Lisa Zyga A recently unclassified report from the Pentagon from 1998 has revealed an investigation into using laser beams for a few intriguing potential methods of non-lethal torture.Some of the applications the report investigated include putting voices in people’s heads, using lasers to trigger uncontrolled neuron firing, and slowly heating the human body to a point of feverish confusion – all from hundreds of meters away. A US citizen requested access to the document, entitled “Bioeffects of Selected Non-Lethal Weapons,” under the Freedom of Information Act a little over a year ago. There is no evidence that any of the technologies mentioned in the 10-year-old report have been developed since the time it was written The report explained several types of non-lethal laser applications, including microwave hearing, disrupted neural control, and microwave heating. For the first type, short pulses of RF energy (2450 MHz) can generate a pressure wave in solids and liquids. When exposed to pulsed RF energy, humans experience the immediate sensation of “microwave hearing” – sounds that may include buzzing, ticking, hissing, or knocking that originate within the head. Studies with guinea pigs and cats suggest that the mechanism responsible for the phenomenon is thermoelastic expansion. Exposure to the RF pulses doesnLt cause any permanent effects, as all effects cease almost immediately after exposure ceases. As the report explains, tuning microwave hearing could enable communicating with individuals from a distance of up to several hundred meters. The report explains: The phenomenon is tunable in that the characteristic sounds and intensities of those sounds depend on the characteristics of the RF energy as delivered… Because the frequency of the sound heard is dependent on the pulse characteristics of the RF energy, it seems possible that this technology could be developed to the point where words could be transmitted to be heard like the spoken word, except that it could only be heard within a personLs head. In one experiment, communication of the words from one to ten using Lspeech modulatedL microwave energy was successfully demonstrated. Microphones next to the person experiencing the voice could not pick up these sounds. Additional development of this would open up a wide range of possibilities.” The report predicts that communicating at longer distances would be possible with larger equipment, while shorter range signals could be generated with portable equipment. Putting voices in peopleLs heads could cause what the report calls “psychologically devastating” effects. The technology might even allow for communicating with an individual hostage surrounded by captors, although this would require “extreme directional specificity. With another weapon, electromagnetic pulses could be used to disrupt the brainLs functioning, although this technology was still in the theoretical stages at the time. Under normal conditions, all brain structures function with specific rhythmic activity depending on incoming sensory information. Sometimes, the brain synchronizes neuronal activity in order to focus on a specific task, but the degree of neuronal synchronization is highly controlled. However, under certain conditions (such as physical stress or heat stroke), more areas of the brain can fire in a highly synchronized manner, and may begin firing uncontrollably. The report describes a method for replicating this highly synchronized neuron firing across distances of several hundred meters. High-voltage (100 kV/m) electromagnetic pulses lasting for one nanosecond could trigger neurons to fire, disrupting the bodyLs controlled firing activity. Short-term effects may include loss of consciousness, muscle spasms, muscle weakness, and seizures lasting for a couple minutes. These high-voltage pulsed sources, which would require an estimated frequency of 15 Hz, exist today. Another form of non-lethal torture described in the report is microwave heating. By raising the temperature of the body to 41‹C (105.8‹F), humans can experience sensations such as memory loss and disorientation, and exhibit reduced aggression. According to the report, humans can survive temperatures up to 42‹C (107.6‹F), at which time prolonged exposure can result in permanent brain damage or death. The microwave heating technique was tested on a Rhesus monkey, where a 225 MHz beam caused an increase in the animalLs body temperature. Depending on the dosage level, the temperature increase occurred within a time of 15 to 30 minutes. After the beam was removed, the animalLs body temperature decreased back to normal. The report suggests the technique could be useful for controlling crowds or in negotiations. While the investigations reveal intriguing techniques for non-lethal torture, the report does not mention plans for carrying out specific experiments or studies in the future. Vaccine Implants Implants are now smaller than a hair’s width and are injected with vaccine and flu shots. Millions have had this done unknowingly. These ‘biochips’ circulate in the bloodstream and lodge in the brain, enabling the victims to hear ‘voices’ via the implant. Fluoride and selenium enable people to ‘hear voices’. ELF waves create disturbances in the biological processes of the body and these can be activated in the population once the diseases are introduced into the body from the chemtrails. Fluoride disables the willpower section of the brain, impairing the left occipital lobe.Some chemtrails have been analyzed and shown to be creating cleavages in spacial perceptions, blocking the interaction of various amino-acids that relate to higher-consciousness and to increase dopamine in the brain producing a listless, spaced-out state of lower reactive mind. PENTAGON – Flu Vaccine Use to Modify Human Behavior The Pentagon currently wants to “realistically replicate human behavior and frailties” to improve cyberwarfare tactics.The human brain is one of the most complex organs known to man. To successfully model human populations it is vital that the computer models can successfully account for how an individuals brain would respond in specific situations in a sensory environment. 8.DARPA – nanotechnology 1.Military Defense Robotics Machines Will Rise: Becoming Self Aware The Department of Defense is building robots for the Pentagon. It has been seen as a move that could advance AI research and move the Defense robotics industry into the New Age. As viewed in our Exoskeleton section one of the leading manufactures in the exoskeleton arena is a company called Cyberdyne Technologies. Industry experts are already predicting that when the soldier steps out of this unit the exoskeleton will be able to operate autonomously. 2.NANO SOLDIERS A New Industrial Revolution In January 2000, U.S. President Bill Clinton requested a $227-million increase in the government’s investment in nanotechnology research and development, which included a major initiative called the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). This initiative nearly doubled America ‘s 2000 budget investment in nanotechnology, bringing the total invested in nanotechnology to $497 million for the 2001 national budget. In a written statement, White House officials said that “nanotechnology is the new frontier and its potential impact is compelling.” About 70 percent of the new nanotechnology funding will go to university research efforts, which will help meet the demand for workers with nanoscale science and engineering skills. The initiative will also fund the projects of several governmental agencies, including the National Science Foundation , the Department of Defense , the Department of Energy , the National Institutes of Health , NASA and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Much of the research will take more than 20 years to complete, but the process itself could touch off a new industrial revolution. Nanotechnology is likely to change the way almost everything, including medicine, computers and cars, are designed and constructed. Nanotechnology is anywhere from five to 15 years in the future, and we won’t see dramatic changes in our world right away. A Short History of Nanotechnology 1959 Feynman gives after-dinner talk describing molecular machines building with atomic precision 1974 Taniguchi uses term “nano-technology” in paper on ion-sputter machining 1977 Drexler originates molecular nanotechnology concepts at MIT 1981 First technical paper on molecular engineering to build with atomic precision STM invented 1985 Buckyball discovered 1986 First book published AFM invented First organization formed 1987 First protein engineered First university symposium 1988 First university course 1989 IBM logo spelled in individual atoms First national conference 1990 First nanotechnology journal Japan’s STA begins funding nanotech projects 1991 Japan”s MITI announces bottom-up “atom factory” IBM endorses bottom-up path Japan’s MITI commits $200 million Carbon nanotube discovered 1992 First textbook published First Congressional testimony 1993 First Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for modeling a hydrogen abstraction tool useful in nanotechnology First coverage of nanotech from White House “Engines of Creation” book given to Rice administration, stimulating first university nanotech center 1994 Nanosystems textbook used in first university course US Science Advisor advocates nanotechnology 1995 First think tank report First industry analysis of military applications Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for synthesis of complex threedimensional structures with DNA molecules 1996 $250,000 Feynman Grand Prize announced First European conference NASA begins work in computational nanotech First nanobio conference 1997 First company founded: Zyvex First design of nanorobotic system Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for work in computational nanotechnology and using scanning probe microscopes to manipulate molecules 1998 First NSF forum, held in conjunction with Foresight Conference First DNA-based nanomechanical device Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for computational modeling of molecular tools for atomically-precise chemical reactions and for building molecular structures through the use of self-organization 1999 First Nanomedicine book published First safety guidelines Congressional hearings on proposed National Nanotechnology Initiative Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for development of carbon nanotubes for potential computing device applications and for modeling the operation of molecular machine designs 2000 President Clinton announces U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative First state research initiative: $100 million in California Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for computational materials science for nanostructures and for building a molecular switch 2001 First report on nanotech industry U.S. announces first center for military applications Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for theory of nanometer-scale electronic devices and for synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes and nanowires 2002 First nanotech industry conference Regional nanotech efforts multiply Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for using DNA to enable the selfassembly of new structures and for advancing our ability to model molecular machine systems 2003 Congressional hearings on societal implications Call for balancing NNI research portfolio Drexler/Smalley debate is published in Chemical & Engineering News Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for modeling the molecular and electronic structures of new materials and for integrating single molecule biological motors with nano-scale silicon devices 2004 First policy conference on advanced nanotech First center for nanomechanical systems Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for designing stable protein structures and for constructing a novel enzyme with an altered function 2005 At Nanoethics meeting, Roco announces nanomachine/nanosystem project count has reached 300 Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for for designing a wide variety of single molecular functional nanomachines and for synthesizing macromolecules of intermediate sizes with designed shapes and functions 2006 National Academies nanotechnology report calls for experimentation toward molecular manufacturing Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for work in molecular computation and algorithmic self-assembly, and for producing complex two-dimensional arrays of DNA nanostructures 2007 Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for construction of molecular machine systems that function in the realm of Brownian motion, and molecular machines based upon two-state mechanically interlocked compounds 2008 Technology Roadmap for Productive Nanosystems released Protein catalysts designed for non-natural chemical reactions Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for work in molecular electronics and the synthesis of molecular motors and nanocars, and for theoretical contributions to nanofabrication and sensing 2009 An improved walking DNA nanorobot Structural DNA nanotechnology arrays devices to capture molecular building blocks Design ‘from scratch’ of a small protein that performed the function performed by natural globin proteins Organizing functional components on addressable DNA scaffolds Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for experimental demonstrations of mechanosynthesis using AFM to manipulate single atoms, and for computational analysis of molecular tools to build complex molecular structures 2010 DNA-based ‘robotic’ assembly begins Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for work in single atom manipulations and atomic switches, and for development of quantum mechanical methods for theoretical predictions of molecules and solids 2011 First programmable nanowire circuits for nanoprocessors DNA molecular robots learn to walk in any direction along a branched track Mechanical manipulation of silicon dimers on a silicon surface 9.Military Nanotechnology Dangers, Preventive Arms Control, and Challenges to the International System Jurgen Altmann Experimentelle Physik III Universitat Dortmund Germany Conference Understanding Complex Systems University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana IL, USA 15-18May-2006 NSTC, USA, 1999 1. Nanotechnology(NT) Analysis and engineering of systems atnanometres(10-9m) size range: between about 0,1nm(atom) and several 100nm(larger molecule). 2.MolecularNanotechnology Mechanosynthesis: molecular machine takes atoms/molecules from surroundings, fits mechanically together and lets bonds work Concepts Associated with MolecularNT – Mobile nano-robots – (Super-)human artificial intelligence – Automatic research, development, construction – Modified/improved organs, bodies; cyborgs – Sense/control brain contents, download to software – Outer space: mining of asteroids, colonies 3.(European concept different) Promises of Nanotechnology/Converging Technologies extremely small, extremely powerful computers, linked everywhere clean production clean energy lighter, more efficient vehicles longer-duration materials prosthetic implants, targeted drug delivery, tissue regeneration Risks/Ethical Problems of Nanotechnology/Converging Technologies health, environment -at present mainly nanoparticles fewer jobs enanodividef privacy genetic manipulation of plants, animals, humans implants, body manipulation Efforts for NT Europe Japan USA Rest of world -each about $ 800 million government funding per year Military Nanotechnology: Potential Applications and Preventive Arms Control Jurgen Altmann London/New York: Routledge, 2006 With revolutionary changes in nanotechnology (NT) now on the horizon, many countries have started major research and development (R&D) programmes, which are mainly civilian. Often overlooked are military R&D programmes . in particular those of the US government. This is the first systematic and comprehensive presentation of the potential military applications of NT. In ten to twenty years, these applications may include extremely small computers, robots, missiles, satellites, launchers and sensors. They may also provide lighter and stronger materials for vehicles and weapons, implants in soldiersf bodies, metal-free firearms, autonomous fighting systems, and smaller chemical and biological weapons. These potential uses raise strong concerns. This assessment is made from a viewpoint of international security, considering the new criteria of dangers for arms control and the international law of warfare, dangers for stability through potential new arms races and proliferation, and dangers for humans and society. Some military applications, such as computers, will be so close to civilian uses that limits are impractical. Others, such as sensors for biological- warfare agents, may contribute to stronger protection against terrorist attacks and better verification of compliance with arms-control treaties.For preventive limitation of these new technologies, specific approaches are proposed that balance positive civilian uses and take into account verification of compliance, with a view to international peace and security, not national military strength. This book will be of great interest to scholars of military technology, non-lethal weapons, disarmament and security studies in general. 10.NATO 179 STCMT 05 E – THE SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Lothar IBRUGGER (Germany) III. MILITARY USES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 13. While most of the debate over NT focuses on its prospects for informatics and medicine, potential military applications of NT lack proper public attention, despite the fact that NT is becoming increasingly important for military strategists. The funding of military NT makes up a substantial share of total NT funding. 14. The United States is the leader in military R&D of NT. Indeed, the US military has been engaged in this field since the 1980s, focusing on ultra-submicron electronics and scanning-probe microscopy. In 1996, NT was established as one of six strategic research areas for defence. Accordingly, between 25 and 30% of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative funding has gone to the US Department of Defence (DoD) since NNI’s establishment in 2000. In 2005, the DoD is due to receive $276 million for NT, while the Department of Homeland Security will receive an extra $1 million for this purpose, accounting for approximately 28% of the total US NT budget. The US military R&D is focusing on the development of miniature sensors, high-speed processing, unmanned combat vehicles, improved virtual-reality training, and enhancement of human performance. 15. The UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) is also engaged in military R&D of NT, and allocates approximately ’1.5 million per annum to this purpose. However, the MOD considers NT development in the United Kingdom as being driven by commercial, rather than military imperatives. NT related expenditure accounts for 0.35% of the annual UK defence scientific research budget and is substantially smaller than that of the Department of Trade and Industry. Sweden has invested .11 million over 5 years in military NT R&D. The European Union had budgeted .65 million in 2004-2006 to enhance the European industrial potential in the field of security research. Even though this does not specifically mention NT, some of the areas might contain NT implications. 16. Most of military NT is still in R&D level. According to Dr. Jurgen Altmann, one of the most prominent researchers of military NT, it will take between 5 and 20 years or more for the applications of this research to arrive. One can expect that NT-based soldier-worn systems will be introduced in the mid-term future. In 2002, the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology (ISN) was created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), with a five-year grant of $50 million from the US Army. The goal of this research centre is to greatly enhance the protection and survival of the infantry soldier, using NT to create a bulletproof battle suit. US army planners are hoping to lighten the load that soldiers carry into battle. These systems could also monitor the state of health of the wearer, improve stamina and reaction, ease or even heal injuries, improve communication abilities, and increase soldiers’ protection against biological or chemical weapons. 17. Potentially, NT could dramatically improve warfare technology. Lighter, stronger, heat resistant nanomaterials could be used in producing all kinds of weapons, making military transportation faster, strengthening armour and saving energy. Qualities of nanomaterials can be used for better camouflage. 18. A significant breakthrough in electronics, encouraged by NT, could result in the creation of smaller but very powerful computers, very small sensors and other devices that could be used by the military in a number of ways. Information could be stored and analysed more efficiently, intelligence and surveillance capabilities could be increased considerably by using nanosensors, precision of projectiles could reach extreme accuracy, communication systems could become much more sophisticated, as well as virtual reality systems for training. Tiny sensors or even nanocomputers could be embedded in various military items, munitions, projectiles or uniforms, thus making them “smart”. Some more futuristic visions even foresee development of autonomous fighting robots and military use of artificial intelligence, enabled by the development of NT. 19. It is debatable whether NT could bring significant changes to nuclear weapons, as the laws of physics would still require a critical mass of uranium or plutonium. NT, however, might be used to improve arming or triggering systems of nuclear weapons. On the other hand, Dr. Andre Gsponer, Director of the Geneva-based Independent Scientific Research Institute, argues that NT can actually contribute to miniaturisation and safety of nuclear bombs, by offering heat- and radiation- resistant materials. Furthermore, NT might be used to create the fourth-generation nuclear weapon, i.e. a low-yield “clean” fusion-fuelled nuclear bomb, which would contain no, or very little, fissionable material. These nukes could potentially be used in earth-penetrating missiles. 20. The potential for NT innovations in chemical and biological weapons is particularly disquieting, as NT can considerably enhance the delivery mechanisms of agents or toxic substances. The ability of nanoparticles to penetrate the human body and its cells could make biological and chemical warfare much more feasible, easier to manage and to direct against specific groups or individuals. Dr. Sean Howard, in his work on NT security implications, has even called the threat of chemical and biological warfare a “real nano goo”. 21. On the other hand, NT offers tools to effectively and profoundly strengthen homeland security policies, aimed at fighting the proliferation of biological and chemical weapons. Sensitive, selective and inexpensive NT-based sensors and materials could detect and bind components of chemical, biological or radiological weapons on the atomic or molecular level, thanks to the large surface/volume ratio of nanoparticles or of nanoporous material (JA). This is very important, as some agents can be lethal even in minuscule quantities. Chemical and biological defence systems with nanosensors could be placed in public places, such as schools or government buildings, public transportation systems, military assets, and border-crossing sites. Finally, nanomaterials could also be used to decontaminate places or individuals affected by chemical or biological weapons. 11.Nanotechnology in Europe gNanoscience and nanotechnologies: an action plan for Europe 2005-2009h. This plan highlights the following nanotechnology areas: _ nanoelectronics, including nanomanufacturing and nanoinstrumentation _ nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine, including diagnostics, targeted drug delivery and regenerative medicine _ nanomaterials, nanoparticle technology _ health and environmental risks of nanotechnology Germany: 320 MEuro/yr on nano in 2004 Nanotechnology in Germany is focused on nanoelectronics (46 MEuro/yr), nanomaterials (38), nano-optics (26), microsystems (10), ICT (3), nanobio (3) and manufacturing (2). Nine nanotechnology competence centers have been founded: Nanomaterials (Karlsruhe), Ultraprecision surface engineering (Braunschweig) and nano coatings (Dresden), Nanooptics (Berlin), Nanobiotechnology (Munchen and Kaiserslautern), Nanochemistry (Saarbrucken), Hanse Nanotec (Hamburg); CeNtech (Munster) UK: 130 MEuro/yr on nano in 2004 After the National Initiative on Nanotechnology (NION) and LINK nanotechnology program (LNP), both ended in 2002, the UK launched in 2003 the Micro and Nanotechnology Initiative (MNT) to create a network of micro and nanotechnology facilities. At present the UK has 1500 nanotechnology workers. Well recognized nanotechnology centers are at the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Newcastle, Durham and Glasgow. A special nanomaterials production facility is present at Farnborough, run by Qinetiq. Inex, innovation in nanotechnology exploitation, offers a one-stop-shop facility for micro- and nanosystems including production facilities. France: 250 MEuro/yr on nano in 2004 The French research structure for nanotechnology is based around a group of five centers of excellence. This network covers the facilities at CEA-LETI in Grenoble (centered on Minatec, which brings together the CEA, the CNRS, the Institut National Polytechnique and the Universite Joseph Fourier); the Laboratoire d’Analyses et d’Architectures des Systemes (LAAS) in Toulouse; the Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN) in Marcoussis; the Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale in Orsay (IEF) (centered on Minerve) and the Institut d’Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologies (IEMN) in Lille. Priorities are: _ micro & nanoelectronics _ opto-electronics _ microsystems and assembly _ biotechnology and instrumentation Netherlands Nanotechnology is considered crucial for the high tech industry in the Netherlands, not only for the multinationals such as Philips, ASML, ASMI, DSM, AKZO-Nobel but also for a large number of small and medium sized companies. Three programs are now ongoing. NanoNed NanoNed, is an initiative of eight knowledge institutes and Philips. It clusters the nanotechnology and enabling technology strengths of the Dutch industrial and scientific infrastructure. The total budget for this NanoNed program amounts to 235 MEuro (4 years). The program has so called flagship projects on: _ advanced nanoprobing, nano-instrumentation _ chemistry and physics of individual molecules _ bionanosystems _ bottom-up nanoelectronics, nanoelectronic materials _ nanofabrication, nanofluidics _ nanophotonics, nanospintronics MicroNed The MicroNed program integrates Netherlands R&D on microsystems. The budget amounts to 54 MEuro (4 years). It has the following clusters: _ micro invasive devices; micro life, lab-on-chip _ distributed sensor and actuator systems; autonomous sensors for harsh environments _ smart microchannel technology; modeling and design of microsystems _ microsatellite _ microfactory The Holst center was founded in 2005 by IMEC (B) and TNO (NL) in order to valorize nano- and microsystems technology into innovative products. It has two technology programs: _ system in a package: wireless, autonomous sensors _ system in a foil: flexible electronics in a foil for lighting, sensors, tags and energy The center has received a 50 MEuro grant from the Ministry of Economic Affairs. It is an open innovation center and industrial partners can sign in and participate in the technology programs. Technology radars One way of ordering and structuring this nanolandscape is to plot technology radars. Technology radars are radial plots with the radius as timeline, usually 15 or 20 years, towards market readiness. The radar circle can be divided into three or four segments covering the following application domains: _ ict, information and communication _ energy or power _ bio and life science _ materials and manufacturing In this chapter nanotechnology radars are being proposed for eight application domains in both the military and civil world: _ human centric: soldier, first responder, medical, sport _ vehicles: land vehicles, automotive _ marine: naval, maritime _ aerospace: missiles, fighters, aero planes _ space: satellites _ weapons and law enforcement _ logistics _ security and surveillance 12.MILLITARY SPACE PROGRAMS MILITARY SPACE PROGRAM – USA (FAS space millitary System) – EU (GMES space millitary System) – RUSSIA (POLYUS space milllitary System) SATELITTE NAVIGATION – USA (GPS satellite navigation) – EU (GALILEO satellite navigation) – RUSSIA (GLONASS satellite navigation) The Nautilus is another space- faring craft, a secret military spacecraft which operates by magnetic pulsing. It operates out of the unacknowledged new headquarters of the U.S. Space Command, deep under a mountain in Utah. It makes twice-a-week trips up to the secret military-intelligence space station, which has been in deep space for the past thirty years, and manned by U.S. and USSR (now CIS) military astronauts. In 1988 previous models of spacefaring military vehicles were superseded by the “Nautilus”, a spacecraft with a rounded delta shape built jointly by special projects divisions of Europe’s Airbus Industrie and U.S.’s Boeing Corporation. Nautilus has a propulsion system which utilizes magnetic pulsing. Nautilus-type craft make twice-weekly trips up into space and back, to service the secret international space station. The Nautilus is based in Utah. The “Dream Chaser” is a planned manned suborbital and orbital spacecraft being developed by Space-Dev, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sierra Nevada Corporation. It is a spaceplane based on previous NASA & Soviet spaceplane work. 1.Tactical High Energy Laser- THEL The cooperative Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) Demonstrator ACTD was initiated by a memorandum of agreement between the United States and the Government of Israel on 18 July 1996. The THEL is a high- energy laser weapon system that uses proven laser beam generation technologies, proven beam- pointing technologies, and existing sensors and communication networks to provide a new active defense capability in counterair missions. The THEL can provide an innovative solution not offered by other systems or technologies for the acquisition and close-in engagement problems associated with short- to medium-range threats, thereby significantly enhancing coverage of combat forces and theater-level assets. The THEL low-cost per kill (about $3,000 per kill) will also provide a cost-effective defense against low-cost air threats. It features up to 60 shots without reloading and a P(k) near 1 at ranges of some 5 km. A joint U.S.-Israeli program was initiated to develop a THEL demonstrator using deuterium fluoride chemical laser technologies. THEL uses a Deuterium-Fluoride (DF) laser. NF3 and C2H4 are first reacted in multiple, side-by-side, high-pressure combustion chambers using an oxidizer (NF3) rich mixture that generates free F atoms. After ignition the combustion-generated F atoms, mixed with combustion byproducts and a He diluent, flow into the laser cavity. A mixture of He and deuterium is also injected into the laser cavity, and DF is generated in an excited state as deuterium reacts with the free F atoms. The laser cavity is now ready to produce a laser beam. BA 330 Nautilus modul X-37A – Boeing/NASA Sierra Nevada Corporation 2.Alpha High energy laser . AHEL Alpha High energy laser Advanced Mirror Program Satellite – TRW Combination lasers: x-ray laser, infra-red laser, chemical joda laser, laser neutral beams, laser electrons, holographic laser. The beam is formed by a combination of sound and ultrasound waves which causes that a person targeted by this beam hears the sound inside of his head. One of them is the electromagnetic energy. Human Bioelectric Impulses(Signals) Modulation/Monitoring Classified US Department of Defense advanced operative tactical weapon, based on human epithalamus and metathalamus specifically epithalamus biomagnetic resonance and metathalamus biomagnetic resonance. Execution of remote targets (target classification:bioobject) complete by the following steps: 1. Epithalamus/Metathalamus biomagnetic field (resonance) of remote target must be projected to remote computerized device-target systems designed to read and modulate bioelectrical impulses. 2. Biomagnetic potentials projected on epithalamus/metathalamus biomagnetic field (resonance) of remote target in its turn reflect on epithalamus it self and brain cortex .This allows to perform simultaneous no-contact bioelectric monitoring (surveillance) of remote target by reading biomagnetic potentials projected to epithalamus biomagnetic field. Satellite Millitary communication GPS III Satellite Millitary communication GPS-USA Successful launch campaign and modernization work under way for Global Positioning System With successful launches of replenishment satellites, a new contract to modernize existing spacecraft and an architecture study for the next-generation satellite system, Space Systems is keeping pace with the Air Forcefs timetable to modernize and improve its GPS constellation. The sixth straight successful GPS IIR satellite was launched in January and is operational. The IIR satellites have increased the GPS constellationfs accuracy and are consistently within the top 10 performers in the constellation. Fourteen more IIR spacecraft have been delivered by Space Systems to the U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center for future launches including another planned this year. The Global Positioning System allows any user equipped with a GPS receiver to determine velocity and worldwide position within a few meters. Although originally designed as a guidance and navigational tool for the military, GPS has proven beneficial in the commercial and civil markets for transportation, surveying and rescue operations. In late 2000, Space Systems was awarded a contract to modernize up to 12 of the 14 GPS satellites currently in storage. The satellites will be modified to incorporate two new military signals and a second civil signal, thus providing military and civilian users of the navigation system with expanded capabilities much sooner than previously envisioned. This modification represents the first significant upgrade to the navigation signal since the inception of GPS. Also in late 2000, Space Systems was awarded one of two industry contracts for a 12- month System Architecture and Requirements Definition stud for the next-generation Global Positioning System, GPS III. GLONASS Navigation – RUSSIA GLONASS-K satellite GLONASS-K is a substantial improvement of the previous generation: it is the first unpressurised GLONASS satellite with a much reduced mass (750 kg versus 1,450 kg of GLONASS-M). It has an operational lifetime of 10 years, compared to the 7-year lifetime of the second generation GLONASS-M. It will transmit more navigation signals to improve the system’s accuracy, including new CDMA signals in the L3 and L5 bands which will use modulation similar to modernized GPS, Galileo and Compass. The new satellite’s advanced equipment.made solely from Russian components.will allow the doubling of GLONASS’ accuracy.As with the previous satellites, these are 3-axis stabilized, nadir pointing with dual solar arrays.The first GLONASS-K satellite was successfully launched on 26 February 2011 Ground control The ground control segment of GLONASS is entirely located within former Soviet Union territory. The Ground Control Center and Time Standards is located in Moscow and the telemetry and tracking stations are in Saint Petersburg, Ternopol, Eniseisk, and Komsomolskna- Amure. Receivers Septentrio, Topcon, JAVAD, Magellan Navigation, Novatel, Leica Geosystems and Trimble Inc produce GNSS receivers making use of GLONASS. NPO Progress describes a receiver called “GALS-A1″ which combines GPS and GLONASS reception. SkyWave Mobile Communications manufactures an Inmarsat-based satellite communications terminal that uses both GLONASS and GPS. SPACE STATION – COLUMBUS (EU) Columbus laboratory The Columbus laboratory is ESA’s biggest single contribution to the International Space Station. The 4.5-metre diameter cylindrical module is equipped with flexible research facilities that offer extensive science capabilities. During its 10-year projected lifespan, Earth-based researchers, together with the ISS crew, will be able to conduct thousands of experiments in life sciences, materials science, fluid physics and a whole host of other disciplines, all in the weightlessness of orbit. To keep costs low and reliability high, Columbus shares its basic structure and life-support systems with the Italian space agency’s (ASI) Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM). But whereas the MPLM is aptly described as a ‘space moving van’ – albeit a very sophisticated moving van – the 75 cubic metres of space inside Columbus contains an entire suite of science laboratories. Payload racks The Columbus laboratory has room for ten International Standard Payload Racks (ISPRs), eight situated in the sidewalls, and two in the ceiling area. Each rack is the size of a telephone booth and able to host its own autonomous and independent laboratory, complete with power and cooling systems, and video and data links back to researchers on Earth. ESA has developed a range of payload racks, all tailored to squeeze the maximum amount of research from the minimum of space and to offer European scientists across a wide range of disciplines full access to a weightless environment that cannot possibly be duplicated on Earth. Columbus was outfitted with five internal payload racks at launch . Biolab – supports experiments on micro-organisms, cells and tissue cultures, and even small plants and small insects. . The European Physiology Modules Facility (EPM) – a set of experiments that will be used to investigate the effects of long-duration spaceflight on the human body. Experiment results will also contibute to an increased understanding of age-related bone loss, balance disorders and other ailments back on Earth. . The Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL) – will accommodate experiments in the strange behaviour of weightless liquids. These too, could bring far-reaching benefits on Earth: better ways to clean up oil spills, for example, and even improved manufacture of optical lenses. . The European Drawer Rack (EDR) – is a modular and flexible experiment carrier system for a large variety of scientific disciplines, providing basic accommodation and resources for experiment modules housed within standardised drawers and lockers. . The European Transport Carrier (ETC) – accommodates items for transport and stowage. In orbit ETC will serve as a workbench and stowage facility. Columbus Control Centre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. Under the call sign ‘Munich’, the Columbus Control Centre will, from 2007, be responsible for systems on board the orbiting Columbus laboratory and for European science activities on board the ISS.The centre is already building operational expertise during ESA’s Astrolab Mission. SPACE STATION – NAUTILUS-X (NASA) NAUTILUS-X stands for Non-Atmospheric Universal Transport Intended for Lengthy United States eXploration This tubular spacecraft could serve as a reusable vehicle for lunar and deep-space missions, holding a crew of six and enough supplies for a twoyear expedition. Dubbed Nautilus-X, for gNon-Atmospheric Universal Transport Intended for Lengthy United States eXploration,h this craft could be built in orbit and ready for space missions by 2020, according to a briefing by NASAfs Future In Space Operations group. Nautilus is a multi-mission space exploration vehicle, so it could incorporate mission-specific propulsion units, according to Edward Henderson of NASA Johnson Space Center. Theoretically, you could swap out engines and fuel depending on where you wanted to go. Such an all-purpose system would be simpler than building heavy-lift rockets for specific missions to the moon or Mars. Henderson described the system at a briefing on NASAfs Technology Applications Assessment Team, which is studying (relatively) inexpensive, quick-turnaround technologies for space exploration. Check out the PowerPoint slides here. HobbySpace has a nice roundup of the meeting, which also included a DARPA-funded geosynchronous satellite servicing project, insitu water recovery on the Moon, a project that would demonstrate spacebased solar power beams, a solar electric propulsion vehicle, and propellant depots floating in geosynchronous orbit. MILITARY SPACE PROGRAM – GMES/EU Sentinel-2 Sentinel-2 will provide systematic global acquisitions of high-resolution multispectral imagery for Europe’s Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is the response to the need by Europe for geo-spatial information services. It provides autonomous and independent access to information for policy-makers, particularly in relation to environment and security. The success of GMES will be achieved largely through a well-engineered Space Component for the provision of Earth-observation data to feed into a range of services for monitoring the environment and supporting civil security activities. With the benefit of more three decades of experience in implementing satellite missions to observe Earth from space, ESA is well-placed to develop and manage this core component of GMES. The GMES Space Component comprises two types of satellite missions, ESA’s five families of dedicated Sentinels and missions from other space agencies, called Contributing Missions. A unified ground segment, through which the data are streamed and made freely available for GMES services, completes the Space Component. The Sentinels will be launched from 2013. These missions carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multispectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring: . Sentinel-1 will provide all-weather, day and night radar imagery for land and ocean services, . Sentinel-2 will provide high-resolution optical imagery for land services, . Sentinel-3 will provide high-accuracy optical, radar and altimetry data for marine and land services, . Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5 will provide data for atmospheric composition monitoring from geostationary orbit and polar orbit, respectively. MILITARY SPACE PROGRAM – POLYUS(RUSSIA) The Polyus military testbed was put together on a crash basis as an answer to America’s Star Wars program. It was built around a surplus TKS manned spacecraft and was meant to test prototype ASAT and Star Wars defense systems. It failed to reach orbit, but it had succeeded, it would have been the core module of a new Mir-2 space station. Its mere presence could have decisively changed the shape of the Cold War in its final months. Polyus Starwars system launched in 1987: The Polyus testbed contained means of defence against both ASAT weapons and beam weapons, though according to Kornilov’s article these were only meant to conduct approach and docking tests. A cannon was mounted on Polyus to defend against ASAT weapons. An optical sighting system for the defensive cannon was included in addition to a sighting radar. By this means hostile ASAT weapons could be tracked without generating traceable signals. Experiments to check the efficiency of barium clouds in diffusing particle beams were also to have been conducted with Polyus. A Polyus mock-up was delivered by the Krunichev Factory to Baikonur Cosmodrome in July, 1986, for tests of the Polyus/Energia interface. The spacecraft was about 37 meters in length, 4.1 meters in diameter and weighed about 80 metric tons. A question exists whether a mock-up of the Polyus test bed was constructed and if it still exists. There have been several schemes advanced by the Salyut Design Bureau and the Krunichev Factory for the commercial adaptation of Polyus and these may be intended to make use of this mock-up. Polyus’s failure to achieve working orbit was caused by a faulty inertial guidance sensor. An article entitled “Unknown Polyus” by Yuri Kornilov, Chief Designer of the Salyut Design Bureau, has appeared in the journal “Earth and the Universe”, and it provides details about the construction and testing of the first payload for the Energia rocket, the “Polyus” spacecraft. While Kornilov invites the reader to “read between the lines” and points out previous Soviet mis-statements about the Polyus, he is under a security ban which would lead to a 10 years in prison if he reveals (Soviet) “state” secrets. His article continues to claim that weapons systems tests were peaceful experiments. On March 23, 1983, United States President Ronald Reagan set forth his vision of “Star Wars”, a shield intended to defend the United States against nuclear attack from any place on Earth. The leader of the Soviet Union, Yuri Andropov, immediately accused the United States of seeking to militarily dominate the Soviet Union, and it appears he also authorised the design of counter-measures, including Polyus. Andropov sought to bring about a treaty banning military weapons from space until he fell ill in June, 1983. The Soviet space program ran on a five year cycle and Kornilov complains that the Polyus spacecraft had less than the customary five years for development. It was decided that the Polyus would be the payload for the first launch of the Energia heavy lifter, then scheduled for the fall of 1986. Kornilov gives no reason for the rushed development. Kornilov then goes on to declare that because of this rush Polyus was created by combining components from several current projects. The interface between Polyus and the Energia booster was adapted from the Buran Space Shuttle. The central module was adapted from a module for the Mir 2 Space Station. The replaceable and returnable space station to house cosmonauts was adapted from the upgrade of the existing TKS Transport Supply Spacecraft (Kosmos 929, 1267, 1443, 1668). Since the interface of the replaceable space station with the Proton launch vehicle was adapted to interface it with the central module, the rocket engines for orbital insertion had to be placed in the nose of the vehicle. This placement had catastrophic consequences for the Polyus spacecraft. After Andropov’s death in February, 1984 his successor Konstantin Chernenko continued to press for a treaty banning the militarisation of space. None the less, apparently following the successful test by the US Army of an anti-ballistic missile on June 12, 1984, and the rejection of a Soviet diplomatic initiative on July 1, construction of the Polyus began at the Krunichev Factory. Design and construction of the platform was given the highest priority, and was under the personal supervision of Armaments Minister O D Baklanov (who later organised the coup against Michael Gorbachev) and Vice Minister O N Shishkin. These two met weekly with project leaders and issued immediate orders for the production of any needed components. Chernenko’s successor Michael Gorbachev denounced the militarisation of space on his first diplomatic trips abroad in December, 1984. Following Chernenko’s death on March 12, 1985, and his becoming leader, Gorbachev proposed a freeze on the development of space weapons. NAVAL – SPACE COMMAND Mission Headquartered at Dahlgren, Va., Naval Space Command began operations …. Oct. 1, 1983. Naval Space Command uses the medium of space and its potential to provide essential information and capabilities to shore and afloat naval forces by a variety of means: . Operating surveillance, navigation, communication, environmental, and information systems; . Advocating naval warfighting requirements in the joint arena; . Advising, supporting, and assisting the naval services through training, and by developing space plans, programs, policies, concepts, and doctrine. Overview Naval Space Command’s headquarters staff and operational element numbers approximately 350 Navy military and civilian personnel. Their component commands include the Naval Satellite Operations Center and the Fleet Surveillance Support Command. Naval Space Command, a component of USSPACECOM, operates assigned space systems to provide surveillance and warning, and provides spacecraft telemetry and on-orbit engineering support. In addition, Naval Space Command serves as the Alternate Space Control Center [AASC] for USSPACECOM’s primary centers located at Cheyenne Mountain AS. ASCC missions include operational direction of the entire global space surveillance network (SSN) for commander in chief, USSPACECOM (USCINCSPACE). The ASCC also detects, tracks, identifies, and catalogs all man-made objects in space and provides position information on these objects to about 1,000 customers. In addition, ASCC is charged with monitoring the space environment and informing owners and operators of U.S. and allied space systems of potential threats to their assets by continuous liaison with the systems’ operations centers. The heartbeat of Naval Space Command revolves around providing space support to day-to-day operations of the Fleet and Fleet Marine Forces worldwide, whether for routine deployments, exercises, or actions in response to a crisis situation. This space support to terrestrial and naval forces can be categorized across a broad spectrum of activities that encompass communications, surveillance and indication, and warning, intelligence, navigation, and remote sensing. Surveillance: A constant and vigilant surveillance of potentially hostile military threats is critical in preserving the operational effectiveness of our armed forces around the world. Naval Space Command manages two distinct surveillance efforts in support of Fleet and Fleet Marine Forces: tracking satellites in orbit and monitoring over-the-horizon threats from sea and air forces. First, Naval Space Command operates a surveillance network of nine field stations located across the southern U.S. Three transmitter sites in the network are located at Jordan Lake, Ala., Lake Kickapoo, Texas, and Gila River, Ariz. Six receiver sites are located at Tattnall, Ga., Hawkinsville, Ga., Silver Lake, Miss., Red River, Ark., Elephant Butte, N.M., and San Diego, Calif. These surveillance stations produce a “fence” of electromagnetic energy that can detect objects out to an effective range of 15,000 nautical miles. Over one million satellite detections, or observations, are collected by this surveillance network each month. Data gathered is transmitted to a computer center at Naval Space Command headquarters in Dahlgren, where it is used to constantly update a data base of spacecraft orbital elements. This information is reported to Fleet and Fleet Marine Forces to alert them when particular satellites of interest are overhead. The command also maintains a catalog of all earth-orbiting satellites and supports USSPACECOM as part of the nation’s worldwide Space Surveillance Network… Intelligence: Naval Space Command provides space intelligence support to deployed naval forces through an initiative dubbed “Chambered Round.” The Chambered Round product is a message that provides deployed naval forces with tactical assessments of hostile space capabilities and specific reactions to their operations. This knowledge assists Fleet and Fleet Marine Force tactical units in reducing their vulnerability to space reconnaissance efforts… TRW – Direct Energy Weapon “Naval-Surface Warfare Center” – Virginia MARYLAND COMPUTERS Marylandfs aerospace and defense industry includes 12 major military installations, 16 of Americafs top 25 aerospace companies and 70 of the top 100 defense contractors. The state is a thriving location for space exploration, satellite technology and research, design and manufacturing of UAVs and robotics. The industry includes Department of Defense related activities such as biodefense, cyber security, avionics, informatics and ordnance and weapons testing. In 2009, Marylandfs 2,600 aerospace and defense businesses were awarded $3.5 billion in federal contracts and generated $21.2 billion in Gross Domestic Product. RESEARCH Maryland has more than 50 federal research agencies and ranks second nationally in research and development investments by the federal government, with $12.5 billion in annual funding. ADVANCING SPACE EXPLORATION Research and development in Maryland based organizations revolutionize aerospace and space exploration offering mankind an up-close look at mysteries of our planet with help from the Hubble Space Telescope, the MESSENGER satellite and the James Webb Space Telescope. . JHU Applied Physics Lab . U.S. Army Research Laboratory . Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division . Naval Air Systems Command . NASA Goddard Space Flight Center . Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport MARYLAND MILITARY INSTALLATIONS . Aberdeen Proving Ground . Adelphi Laboratory Center . Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District . Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center . Coast Guard Yard, Curtis Bay . Fort Detrick . Fort George G. Meade . Joint Base Andrews Naval Air Facility Washington . National Naval Medical Center at Bethesda . Naval Air Station Patuxent River . Naval Support Facility Indian Head . United States Naval Academy TOP MARYLAND DEFENSE IT CONTRACTORS . Boeing . IBM . Booz Allen Hamilton . L-3 Communications . CACI International . Lockheed Martin . CSC . MITRE . General Dynamics . Northrop Grumman . Honeywell International . SAIC EDUCATION Maryland has world-renowned colleges and universities with outstanding computer science and engineering programs. Nationally ranked STEM and competitive research programs include the University System of Maryland, which attracts more than $1 billion annually in external research and development support and Johns Hopkins University, the nationfs leading University in volume of research. . University of Maryland College Park is ranked among the top ten universities in graduate and undergraduate aerospace engineering and produces the largest number of STEM graduates in the state. . University of Maryland Baltimore County has the second highest percentage of graduates in STEM fields of any university in the state and is home to the Center for Information Security and Assurance. . University of Maryland University College is one of the worldfs largest public universities. Specialized training programs include Homeland Security and Information Assurance, Information Technology, Project Management and Software Engineering. . United States Naval Academy ranks second in the nation among top public liberal arts colleges, fifth in undergraduate engineering (among schools without PhD programs); its programs in aerospace and electronics/ communications engineering rank in top ten. . Anne Arundel Community College the first 2-year college to develop a cybersecurity curriculum, the Information Systems Security program offers an AA degree, certificate and courses to students for entry-level positions in cybersecurity. 13.Space Weapons Richard L. Garwin (USA) Wednesday 14th May, 2003 Classes of weapons: 1. Directed-energy weapons such as space-based lasers DEW 2. Kinetic -energy weapons against missile targets KEW 3. Kinetic -energy weapons against surface targets KEW 4. Conventional warheads delivered by space-based, or space-traversing, vehicles. Here is a tabulation of threats: 1) denial & deception 2) electronic warfare 3) attack on ground stations 4) sensor blinding 5) microsatellites 6) direct-ascent interceptors 7) nuclear detonation in space GOVERNMENT PATENST MIND CONTROL Patent 1,096,102 – The Hollow Earth Theory Patent 3,951,134 – Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves Patent 4,686,685 – Method And Apparatus for Altering a Region in the Earth’s Atmosphere, Ionosphere, and/or Magnetosphere Patent 4,717,343 – Method of Changing Person’s Behavior Patent 4,858,612 – Hearing Device Patent 4,877,027 – Hearing System Patent 5,123,899 – Method and System for Altering Consciousness Patent 5,159,703 – Silent Subliminal Presentation System Patent 5,270,800 – Subliminal Message Generator Patent 5,507,291 – Method and an Associated Apparatus for Remotely Determining information as to Person’s Emotional State Patent 5,539,705 – Ultrasonic Speech Translator and Communications System Patent 5,629,678 – Personal Tracking and Recovery System Patent 5,760,692 – Intra-oral Tracking Device Patent 5,878,155 – Method for verifying human identity during electronic sale transactions Patent 5,905,461 – Global Positioning Satellite Tracking Device Patent 5,935,054 – Magnetic excitation of Sensory Resonances Patent 5,952,600 – Engine Disabling Weapon Patent 6,006,188 – Speech Signal Processing for Determining Psychological or Physiological Characteristics Using a Knowledge Base Patent 6,011,991 – Communication system and method including brain wave analysis and/or use of brain activity Patent 6,014,080 – Body Worn Active and Passive Tracking Device Patent 6,017,302 – Subliminal Acoustic Manipulation of Nervous System Patent 6,051,594 – Methods and Formulations for Modulating the Human Sexual Response Patent 6,669,094 – Method of Embedding and Recovering Encoded Item Identification Information in an Emulsion by Means of Radiant Energy 14.HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 1000 NAVY PENTAGON WASHINGTON DC 20350-1000 SECNAVINST 3900.39D BUMED MOOR, 3 November 2006 SECNAV INSTRUCTION 3900.39D From: Secretary of the Navy Subj: HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION PROGRAM i. International Research. Research involving human subjects who are not U.S. citizens or DOD personnel, conducted outside the United States, and its territories and possessions, requires permission of the host country. The laws, customs, and practices of the host country and those required by this instruction will be followed. An ethics review by the host country, or local Naval IRE with host country representation, is required. j. Classified Research. Classified research with human subjects is held to the same ethical principles and human subject protections as unclassified research and must receive prior approval from the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) (SECDEF Memorandum of December 13, 1999) . Classified research is not eligible for review under expedited review procedures as noted in reference (n) A. Research includes, but is not limited to, any project, task, test, pilot study, experiment, investigation, study, clinical study, clinical investigation, clinical trial, evaluation, developmental effort or similar undertaking, whether or not conducted or supported under a program that is officially considered research. Any effort, even if not considered research for other purposes, is considered research for purposes of this instruction. 15.Scientists to study synthetic telepathy Researchers get grant to develop communication system based on thoughts, not speech, Irvine, Calif., August 13, 2008 A team of UC Irvine scientists has been awarded a $4 million grant from the U.S. Army Research Office to study the neuroscientific and signal-processing foundations of synthetic telepathy.The research could lead to a ommunication system that would benefit soldiers on the battlefield and paralysis and stroke patients, according to lead researcher Michael DfZmura, chair of the UCI Department of Cognitive Sciences. gThanks to this generous grant we can work with experts in automatic speech recognition and in brain imaging at other universities to research a braincomputer interface with applications in military, medical and commercial settings,h DfZmura says. The brain-computer interface would use a noninvasive brain imaging technology like electroencephalography to let people communicate thoughts to each other. For example, a soldier would gthinkh a message to be transmitted and a computer-based speech recognition system would decode the EEG signals. The decoded thoughts, in essence translated brain waves, are transmitted using a system that points in the direction of the intended target. gSuch a system would require extensive training for anyone using it to send and receive messages,h DfZmura says. Initially, communication would be based on a limited set of words or phrases that are recognized by the system; it would involve more complex language and speech as the technology is developed further.h DfZmura will collaborate with UCI cognitive science professors Ramesh Srinivasan, Gregory Hickok and Kourosh Saberi. Joining the team are researchers Richard Stern and Vijayakumar Bhagavatula from Carnegie Mellon University and David Poeppel from the University of Maryland.The grant comes from the U.S. Department of Defensefs Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative program-MURI, which supports research involving more than one science and engineering discipline. Its goal is to develop applications for military and commercial uses. About the University of California, Irvine: The University of California, Irvine is a top-ranked university dedicated to research, scholarship and community service. Founded in 1965, UCI is among the fastest-growing University of California campuses, with more than 27,000 undergraduate and graduate students and nearly 2,000 faculty members. The third-largest employer in dynamic Orange County, UCI contributes an annual economic impact of $3.6 billion. 16.MURI: Synthetic Telepathy Multidisciplinary University research intiative program RESEARCH We are conducting basic neuroscientific and signal-processing research on imagined speech production and on intended direction. When thinking to oneself silently, one can often hear imagined words in one’s head. We use non-invasive brain-imaging techniques like EEG, MEG and fMRI to learn more about how the brain produces imagined speech when one thinks. We aim to process EEG and MEG signals to determine what words a person is thinking and to whom or what location the message should be sent.The research is conducted by teams at the University of California, Irvine, at Carnegie Mellon University, and at the New York University. The work of seven investigators and their students is supported directly by this project. This work is supported by one of 34 awards made in 2008 by the Department of Defense (DoD) to academic institutions to perform multi-disciplinary basic research. Awards are made by one of three DoD research offices: the Army Research Office (ARO) Office of Naval Research (ONR), and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). The award is part of the the DoD Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program. The MURI program supports multi-disciplinary basic research in areas of DoD interest that include more than one traditional science and engineering discipline. For such a multidisciplinary research area, bringing together scientists and engineers with different areas of expertise can accelerate basic research progress and the transitioning of research results to application.The MURI program complements other DoD research programs, which support standard single-investigator research at academic institutions, through awards to multi-disciplinary teams that are both larger and longer in duration. The 2008 awards are for a three-year base period with a two-year option which depends upon the availability of appropriations and satisfactory research progress. MURI awards can provide greater sustained support than singleinvestigator awards for the graduate training of students pursuing advanced work in science and engineering, as well as for associated infrastructure like research equipment. MURI program is highly competitive. ARO, ONR, and AFOSR solicited proposals in 18 topics important to DoD and received a total of 104 proposals for 2008 funding. The 34 proposals selected underwent merit review by panels of experts in the pertinent science and engineering fields.This MURI award is being supervised by ARO, which is part of the Army Research Laboratory. The ARO’s mission is to (1) serve as the Army’s premier extramural basic research agency in engineering, physical, information and life sciences, and (2) develop and exploit innovative advances to insure the Nation’s technological superiority. Basic research proposals from educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, and private industry are competitively selected and funded. 17. /10 Modern Methods of Mind Control 1. Education . This is the most obvious, yet still remains the most insidious. It has always been a would-be dictatorfs ultimate fantasy to geducateh naturally impressionable children, thus it has been a central component to Communist and Fascist tyrannies throughout history. No one has been more instrumental in exposing the agenda of modern education than Charlotte Iserbyt . one can begin research into this area by downloading a free PDF of her book, The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America, which lays bare the role of Globalist foundations in shaping a future intended to produce servile drones lorded over by a fully educated, aware elite class. 2. Advertising and Propaganda . Edward Bernays has been cited as the inventor of the consumerist culture that was designed primarily to target peoplefs self-image (or lack thereof) in order to turn a want into a need. This was initially envisioned for products such as cigarettes, for example. However, Bernays also noted in his 1928 book, Propaganda, that gpropaganda is the executive arm of the invisible government.h This can be seen most clearly in the modern police state and the growing citizen snitch culture, wrapped up in the pseudo-patriotic War on Terror. The increasing consolidation of media has enabled the entire corporate structure to merge with government, which now utilizes the concept of propaganda placement. Media; print, movies, television, and cable news can now work seamlessly to integrate an overall message which seems to have the ring of truth because it comes from so many sources, simultaneously. When one becomes attuned to identifying the main gmessage,h one will see this imprinting everywhere. And this is not even to mention subliminal messaging. 3. Predictive Programming . Many still deny that predictive programming is real. I would invite anyone to examine the range of documentation put together by Alan Watt and come to any other conclusion. Predictive programming has its origins in predominately elitist Hollywood, where the big screen can offer a big vision of where society is headed. Just look back at the books and movies which you thought were far-fetched, or gscience fictionh and take a close look around at society today. For a detailed breakdown of specific examples, Vigilant Citizen is a great resource that will probably make you look at gentertainmenth in a completely different light. 4. Sports, Politics, Religion . Some might take offense at seeing religion, or even politics, put alongside sports as a method of mind control. The central theme is the same throughout: divide and conquer. The techniques are quite simple: short circuit the natural tendency of people to cooperate for their survival, and teach them to form teams bent on domination and winning. Sports has always had a role as a key distraction that corrals tribal tendencies into a non-important event, which in modern America has reached ridiculous proportions where protests will break out over a sport celebrity leaving their city, but essential human issues such as liberty are giggled away as inconsequential. Political discourse is strictly in a left-right paradigm of easily controlled opposition, while religion is the backdrop of nearly every war throughout history. 5. Food, Water, and Air . Additives, toxins, and other food poisons literally alter brain chemistry to create docility and apathy. Fluoride in drinking water has been proven to lower IQ; Aspartame and MSG are excitotoxins which excite brain cells until they die; and easy access to the fast food that contains these poisons generally has created a population that lacks focus and motivation for any type of active lifestyle. Most of the modern world is perfectly groomed for passive receptiveness . and acceptance . of the dictatorial elite. And if you choose to diligently watch your diet, they are fully prepared to spray the population from the above. 6. Drugs . This can be any addictive substance, but the mission of mind controllers is to be sure you are addicted to something. One major arm of the modern mind control agenda is psychiatry, which aims to define all people by their disorders, as opposed to their human potential. This was foreshadowed in books such as Brave New World. Today, it has been taken to even further extremes as a medical tyranny has taken hold where nearly everyone has some sort of disorder . particularly those who question authority. The use of nerve drugs in the military has led to record numbers of suicides. Worst of all, the modern drug state now has over 25% of U.S. children on mind-numbing medication. 7. Military testing . The military has a long history as the testing ground for mind control. The military mind is perhaps the most malleable, as those who pursue life in the military generally resonate to the structures of hierarchy, control, and the need for unchallenged obedience to a mission. For the increasing number of military personal questioning their indoctrination, a recent story highlighted DARPAfs plans for transcranial mind control helmets that will keep them focused. 8. Electromagnetic spectrum . An electromagnetic soup envelops us all, charged by modern devices of convenience which have been shown to have a direct impact on brain function. In a tacit admission of what is possible, one researcher has been working with a ggod helmeth to induce visions by altering the electromagnetic field of the brain. Our modern soup has us passively bathed by potentially mind-altering waves, while a wide range of possibilities such as cell phone towers is now available to the would-be mind controller for more direct intervention. 9. Television, Computer, and gflicker rateh. Itfs bad enough that what is gprogrammedh on your TV (accessed via remote gcontrolh) is engineered; it is all made easier by literally lulling you to sleep, making it a psycho-social weapon. Flicker rate tests show that alpha brain waves are altered, producing a type of hypnosis . which doesnft portend well for the latest revelation that lights can transmit coded Internet data by gflickering faster than the eye can see.h The computerfs flicker rate is less, but through video games, social networks, and a basic structure which overloads the brain with information, the rapid pace of modern communication induces an ADHD state. A study of video games revealed that extended play can result in lower blood flow to the brain, sapping emotional control. Furthermore, role-playing games of lifelike war and police state scenarios serve to desensitize a connection to reality. One look at the WikiLeaks video Collateral Murder should be familiar to anyone who has seen a game like Call of Duty. 10. Nanobots . From science fiction horror, directly to the modern brain; the nanobots are on the way. Direct brain modification already has been packaged as gneuroengineering.h A Wired article from early 2009 highlighted that direct brain manipulation via fiber optics is a bit messy, but once installed git could make someone happy with the press of a button.h Nanobots take the process to an automated level, rewiring the brain molecule by molecule. Worse, these mini droids can self-replicate, forcing one to wonder how this genie would ever get back in the bottle once unleashed. Expected date of arrival? Early 2020s.A concerted effort is underway to manage and predict human behavior so that the social scientists and the dictatorial elite can control the masses and protect themselves from the fallout of a fully awake free humanity. Only by waking up to their attempts to put us to sleep do we stand a chance of preserving our free will. 18.S E C R E T T E S T Mind Control: Systematic control of peoplefs memories, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors by others. It may involve ritual abuse. Ritual Abuse: Methodical and severe abuse of people with deception, training, and exploitation by others. It always involves mind control. Control and Abuse Sources Governments Individuals and Groups Mind-Controlled People Cults and Secret Societies Gangs and Organized Crime Control and Abuse Basics1 Deception: Hidden and disguised recruitment, training, and activities. Debility: Physical, biological, and psychological attacks weaken individuals. Dependency: Tactics and drugs employed destroy selfsufficiency and force reliance on manipulators. Dread: Cruelty and confusion techniques create depression, uncertainty, numbness, fear, and rage. Dysfunctions: Methods cause memory loss (amnesia), blocking of awareness (dissociation), hypnotic trance, and mindless obedience. Double Amnesia: Procedures make people unaware of their lost memories (amnesia for amnesia). Desensitization: Diminished thoughts, emotions, and behaviors are replaced with induced responses. Control and Abuse Methods 1 Individuals are manipulated, isolated, and debilitated. 2 People are conditioned by disguised training, torture, drugs, electroshock, and hypnosis. 3 Tactics cause amnesia, dissociation, trance, and automatic compliance. 4 Controllers manage the people and situations. 5 Imposed behaviors are reinforced and events covered up. Continuous Cycle Control and Abuse Results Controllers Mind-Controlled People Dominate people by concealed methods. Molded into roles such as informer, enforcer, courier, performer, lover, etc. Use signals (post-hypnotic cues) to trigger conditioned responses. Repeatedly react with controllersf prepared behaviors. The signals include gestures, lights, symbols, words, sounds, smells, touches, substances, etc. Made to obey but donft know the signals and believe abusersf ideas are their own thoughts and motives. Coordinate the exploitation and secrecy. Usually unaware of the hidden conditioning, control, and activities. 19.NATO – Genocide in Afghanistan JURIST Contributing Editor Ali Khan of Washburn University School of Law says that in the name of the “war of terror,” NATO forces in Afghanistan are committing genocide by systematically hunting down and destroying the Taliban, a puritanical Islamic group, contrary to the terms of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide… The Facts The NATO website lists its killings in Afghanistan. These killings are also reported in the world media, often with a shameless tone of gratitude as if NATO forces are engaged in wiping out cannibals. In 2007 alone, NATO helicopters and precision guided munitions bombed and killed over six thousand “Taliban.” Read the following recent attacks, which the NATO itself reports, and smell the scent of genocide: . On January 19, 2008, NATO launched a preemptive strike relying on “credible intelligence” that the Taliban were planning to mass on a NATO base. The attack killed two dozen “insurgents” in the Watapoor District of Kunar Province, though the exact number of casualties could not be confirmed because of the rough mountainous region. The world media reported that numerous civilians were killed and 25 bodies were buried in just one mass grave. . On January 12, 2008, NATO forces conducted what it calls a “precise strike” on a compound in Kapsia Province targeting Taliban leaders. NATO claimed that the civilians were cleared from the compound before the attack. The claim is absurd because any removal of civilians from the compound would have alerted the battle-hardened Taliban that an enemy attack was imminent. . On September 20, 2007, NATO forces launched “Operation Palk Wahel” to kill and remove the Taliban from an area in the Upper Gereshk Valley. Numerous civilians were killed. The evidence of the genocide was so obvious that NATO admitted that it “was unaware of civilians in the vicinity of the target and unfortunately it appears that a number of non-combatants were caught in the attack and killed.” NATO . Brussel 20.SYNTHETIC TELEPATHY – THE EARLY MIND WARS Richard Alan Miller, c2001 [Presented at the Consciousness Technologies Conference, July 19-21, 2001, on Saturday, July 20th, 2001, in Sisters, OR http://www.bluehoney.org/CT2001Gallery.htm] Introduction: I first became aware of Allan Frey’s work at Willow Grove in 1972, just after completing “The Holographic Concept of Reality.” I was working with Dr. Carl Scheicher (MRU) at the time, and was asked about the significance of this work. Realizing its possible use in mind control, my first reaction was to go on “red alert.” Full significance was not yet understood at this time. Basically, Frey had discovered another sensory motor input in the higher blue-band frequencies of 0.3-3.0 GHz. – at very low amplitudes of power. It was “as if” we had another type of “vision,” but did not know how to “see” what was being received. It constituted the next generation of subliminal communications. My work at the time was involved with an AI database for paranormal references (Project Parafile). A second paper was also presented at the Omniversal Symposium, California State College at Sonoma, (September 29, 1973). This was titled “Embryonic Holography,” and was an application of the “Holographic Concept of Reality” model. It dealt with biogenesis and neurological regeneration, and included speculation on the origins of cancer, faith healing, psychic surgery and more technical aspects of mind-body energetics. One week after the delivery of that paper, four men came into my place of business, two in suits and two in full Army dress. The two suits held me under close arrest, while the two Army personnel went through my files, pulling anything related to “Embryonic Holography.” The paper was rewritten from old notes and memory, but it was not the same. What got this paper classified “top secret” for almost 20 years was that it was critical for the use of Allan Frey’s study, and its possible application to mind control. I never was able to draw what was so important in that initial paper until I began researching this paper, more than 24 years later. I will discuss those aspects further into this document. In 1961, Allen Frey, a freelance biophysicist and engineering psychologist, reported that humans could hear microwaves. Most United States scientists dismissed this discovery as the result of outside noise.James C. Linn offered a more technical description of the experiment. “Frey found that human subjects exposed to 1310 MHz and 2982 MHz microwaves at average power densities of 0.4 to 2 mW/cm2 perceived auditory sensations described as buzzing or knocking sounds. The sensation occurred instantaneously at average incident power densities well below that necessary for known biological damage and appeared to originate from within or near the back of the head.” Pulsed Microwave Technology Pulsed microwave voice-to-skull (or other-sound-to-skull) transmission was discovered during World War II by radar technicians who found they could hear the buzz of the train of pulses being transmitted by radar equipment they were working on. This phenomenon has been studied extensively by Dr. Allan Frey, (Willow Grove, 1965) whose work has been published in a number of reference books. What Dr. Frey found was that single pulses of microwave could be heard by some people as “pops” or “clicks”, while a train of uniform pulses could be heard as a buzz, without benefit of any type of receiver. Dr. Frey also found that a wide range of frequencies, as low as 125 MHz (well below microwave) worked for some combination of pulse power and pulse width. Detailed unclassified studies mapped out those frequencies and pulse characteristics which are optimum for generation of “microwave hearing”. Very significantly, when discussing electronic mind control, is the fact that the peak pulse power required is modest – something like 0.3 watts per square centimeter of skull surface, and that this power level is only applied or needed for a very small percentage of each pulse’s cycle time. 0.3- watts/sq cm is about what you get under a 250-watt heat lamp at a distance of one meter. It is not a lot of power. When you take into account that the pulse train is off (no signal) for most of each cycle, the average power is so low as to be nearly undetectable. This is the concept of “spike” waves used in radar and other military forms of communication. Frequencies that act as voice-to-skull carriers are not single frequencies, as, for example TV or cell phone channels. Each sensitive frequency is actually a range or “band” of frequencies. A technology used to reduce both interference and detection is called “spread spectrum”. Spread spectrum signals usually have the carrier frequency “hop” around within a specified band. Unless a receiver “knows” this hop schedule in advance, like other forms of encryption there is virtually no chance of receiving or detecting a coherent readable signal. Spectrum analyzers, used for detection, are receivers with a screen. A spread spectrum signal received on a spectrum analyzer appears as just more “static” or noise. The actual method of the first successful unclassified voice to skull experiment was in 1974, by Dr. Joseph C. Sharp and Mark Grove, then at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. A Frey-type audible pulse was transmitted every time the voice waveform passed down through the zero axes, a technique easily duplicated by ham radio operators who build their own equipment. The sensation is reported as a buzzing, clicking, or hissing which seems to originate within or just behind the head. The phenomenon occurs with carrier densities as low as microwatts per square centimeter with carrier frequencies from 0.3-3.0 GHz. By proper choice of pulse characteristics, intelligent speech may be created. Dr. James Lin of Wayne State University has written a book entitled: Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications. It explores the possible mechanisms for the phenomenon, and discusses possibilities for the deaf, as persons with certain types of hearing loss can still hear pulsed microwaves (as tones or clicks and buzzes, if words aren’t modulated on). Lin mentions the Sharp and Grove experiment and comments: “The capability of communicating directly with humans by pulsed microwaves is obviously not limited to the field of therapeutic medicine.” “Synthetic Telepathy” In 1975, researcher A. W. Guy stated that “one of the most widely observed and accepted biologic effects of low average power electromagnetic energy is the auditory sensation evoked in man when exposed to pulsed microwaves.” He concluded that at frequencies where the auditory effect can be easily detected, microwaves penetrate deep into the tissues of the head, causing rapid thermal expansion (at the microscopic level only) that produces strains in the brain tissue.An acoustic stress wave is then conducted through the skull to the cochlea, and from there, it proceeds in the same manner as in conventional hearing. It is obvious that receiver-less radio has not been adequately publicized or explained because of national security concerns. Today, the ability to remotely transmit microwave voices inside a target’s head is known inside the Pentagon as “Synthetic Telepathy.” According to Dr. Robert Becker, “Synthetic Telepathy has applications in covert operations designed to drive a target crazy with voices or deliver undetected instructions to a programmed assassin.” This technology may have contributed to the deaths of 25 defense scientists variously employed by Marconi Underwater and Defense Systems, Easems and GEC. Most of the scientists worked on highly sensitive electronic warfare programs for NATO, including the Strategic Defense Initiative. It is claimed that directed energy weapons might have been used to literally drive these men to suicide and 291accidents. Biological Amplification Using Microwave Band Frequencies The next major development in ELF weaponry was the concept of a biological amplification of these signals at the cell level to perpetuate and set up resonance for more sophisticated information transfer. This was the beginning of using more than one technology in a stack to do something “more.” While this was implied, it was never developed in “The Holographic Concept of Reality.” Electromagnetic fields or relatively weak power levels can affect intercellular communication. Bio-amplification is apparently why radio signals of very low average power (mw) can produce audio effects, and is difficult to detect. [Electromagnetic Interaction with Biological Systems,ed. Dr. James C. Lin, Univ. of Illinois, 1989, Plenum Press, NY] Imposed weak low frequency fields (and radio frequency fields) that are many orders of magnitude weaker in the pericellular fluid (fluid between adjacent cells) than the membrane potential gradient (voltage across the membrane) can modulate the action of hormones, antibody neurotransmitters and cancer-promoting molecules at their cell surface receptor sites. These ELF sensitivities appear to involve nonequilibrium and highly cooperative processes that mediate a major amplification of initial weak triggers associated with the binding of these molecules (specific cell surface receptor sites). Membrane amplification is inherent in this transmembrane signaling sequence. Initial stimuli associated with weak perpendicular EM fields and with binding of stimulating molecules at their membrane receptor sites elicit a highly cooperative modification of Ca++ binding to glycoproteins along the membrane. A longitudinal spread is consistent with the direction of extracellular current flow associated with physiological activity and imposed EM fields. This cooperative modification of surface Ca++ binding is an amplifying stage. By imposing RF fields, there is a far greater increase in Ca++ efflux than is accounted for in the events of receptor-ligand binding. from imposing RF fields. Enzymes are protein molecules that function as catalysts, initiating and enhancing chemical reactions that would not otherwise occur at tissue temperatures. This ability resides in the pattern of electrical charges on the molecular surface. Activation of these enzymes and the reactions in which they participate involve energies millions of times greater than in the cell surface, triggering events initiated by the EM fields, emphasizing the membrane amplification inherent in this trans-membrane signaling sequence.Frey and Messenger confirmed that a microwave pulse with a slow rise time was ineffectual in producing an auditory response. Only if the rise time is short, resulting in effect in a square wave with respect to the leading edge of the envelope of radiated radiofrequency energy, does the auditory response occur. This is why we don’t “hear” ordinary radio and TV signals. The significance of “Embryonic Holography” now becomes more understandable. For example, the specific frequency bands (0.3-3.0 Hz) are so flat as to appear almost 2-dimensional to most biological processes on a semi-quantum mechanical level. This means that these frequencies can be seen as “scalar” in their possible interaction with specific brain processes. What these frequencies really are, however, are actual holograms of specific thoughts. They have a third component of detail (much like the patented P300 wave). This means that a hybrid form of brain fingerprinting is now possible. And, once these “images” are stored (usually in a very sophisticated super-cooled computer), similar responses can be fed back to the person, inducing virtually any state desired (via entrainment protocols). Silent Sound Technology – “S-quad” Silent (converted-to-voice FM) hypnosis can be transmitted using a voice frequency modulator to generate the “voice.” It is a steady tone, near the high end of hearing range (15,000 Hz), plus a hypnotist’s voice, varying from 300 – 4,000 Hz. These two signals are frequency modulated. The output now appears as a steady tone, like tinnitus, but with hypnosis embedded. The Fmvoice controls the timing of the transmitter’s pulse. Each vertical line is one short pulse of microwave signal at a frequency to which the human brain is sensitive. Timing of each microwave pulse is controlled by each down-slope crossing of the voice wave (Sharp’s method, 1974). Then the brain converts the train of microwave pulses back to inaudible voice. There is no conscious defense possible against this form of hypnosis. Ordinary radio and TV signals use a smooth waveform called a ‘sine’ wave. This wave signal cannot normally penetrate the voltage gradient across the nerve cell walls. Radar signals consist of very short and powerful pulses of sine wave type signals, and can penetrate the steep voltage gradient across these nerve cell walls (Allan H. Frey, Cornell University, 1962). Differences in osmosis of ions (dissolved salt components) cause a small voltage difference across cell walls. When a small voltage appears across a very tiny distance, the change in voltage is called very ‘steep.’ It is this steep gradient that keeps normal radio signals from throwing us into convulsions. The mind-altering mechanism is based on a subliminal carrier technology: the Silent Sound Spread Spectrum (SSSS), sometimes called “Squad” or “Squad”. It was developed by Dr Oliver Lowery of Norcross, Georgia, and is described in US Patent #5,159,703, “Silent Subliminal Presentation System”, dated October 27, 1992. The abstract for the patent reads: “A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio-frequency range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum are amplitude- or frequency-modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically through the use of loudspeakers, earphones, or piezoelectric transducers. The modulated carriers may be transmitted directly in real time or may be conveniently recorded and stored on mechanical, magnetic, or optical media for delayed or repeated transmission to the listener.” According to literature by Silent Sounds, Inc., it is now possible, using supercomputers, to analyze human emotional EEG patterns and replicate them, then store these “emotion signature clusters” on another computer and, at will, “silently induce and change the emotional state in a human being”. Edward Tilton, President of Silent Sounds, Inc., says this about S-quad in a letter dated December 13, 1996: “All schematics, however, have been classified by the US Government and we are not allowed to reveal the exact details… … we make tapes and CDs for the German Government, even the former Soviet Union countries! All with the permission of the US State Department, of course… The system was used throughout Operation Desert Storm (Iraq) quite successfully.” “Induced Alpha to Theta Biofeedback Cluster Movement” is an output from “the world’s most versatile and most sensitive electroencephalograph (EEG) machine”. This device has a gain capability of 200,000, as compared to most other EEG machines (with gain capability of 50,000). It is software-driven by the “fastest of computers” using a noise nulling technology similar to that used by nuclear submarines for detecting small objects underwater at extreme range. The purpose of all this high technology is to plot and display a moving cluster of periodic brainwave signals. The illustration shows an EEG display from a single individual, taken of left and right hemispheres simultaneously. This technology is very similar to that used to generate P300 waves. Cloning the Emotions By using these computer-enhanced EEGs, scientists can identify and isolate the brain’s lowamplitude “emotion signature clusters,” synthesize them and store them on another computer. In other words, by studying the subtle characteristic brainwave patterns that occur when a subject experiences a particular emotion, scientists have been able to identify the concomitant brainwave pattern and can now duplicate it. “These clusters are then placed on the Silent Sound[TM] carrier frequencies and will silently trigger the occurrence of the same basic emotion in another human being!” Regarding system delivery and applications, there is a lot more involved here than a simple subliminal sound system. There are numerous patented technologies that can be piggybacked individually or collectively onto a carrier frequency to elicit all kinds of effects. There appear to be two methods of delivery with the system. One is direct microwave induction into the brain of the subject, limited to short-range operations. The other, as described above, utilizes ordinary radio and television carrier frequencies. Far from necessarily being used as a weapon against a person, the system does have limitless positive applications. However, the fact that the sounds are subliminal makes them virtually undetectable and possibly dangerous to the general public. In more conventional use, the Silent Sounds Subliminal System might utilize voice commands,e.g., as an adjunct to security systems. Beneath the musical broadcast that you hear in stores and shopping malls may be a hidden message that exhorts against shoplifting. And while voice commands alone are powerful, when the subliminal presentation system carries cloned emotional signatures, the result is overwhelming. Free-market uses for this technology are the common self-help tapes, positive affirmation, relaxation and meditation tapes, as well as methods to increase learning capabilities. But there is strong evidence that this technology is being developed toward global mind control. The secrecy involved in the development of the electromagnetic mind-altering technology reflects the tremendous power that is inherent in it. To put it bluntly, whoever controls this technology can control the minds of men – all men. There is evidence that the U.S. Government has plans to extend the range of this technology to envelop all peoples, all countries. This can be accomplished, and is being accomplished, by utilizing the nearly completed HAARP project for overseas areas and the GWEN network now in place in the U.S. The U.S. Government denies all this. Dr Michael Persinger is a Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada. His work and findings indicate that strong electromagnetic fields can and will affect a person’s brain. “Temporal lobe stimulation can evoke the feeling of a presence, disorientation, and perceptual irregularities. It can activate images stored in the subject’s memory, including nightmares and monsters that are normally suppressed.” Mind Reading Devices Alan Yu, a former lieutenant colonel in the Taiwan National Defense Department, says that the United States has not only developed an operational mind control machine, but has also distributed models for use by allied countries. Yu states that such machines pose a great threat to human rights and the American way of life. He calls the device the “Mind Reading Machine” (Mind Machine). Yu writes that there are two sources of information detailing the existence of the Mind Reading Machine. The first evidence: In the 1970s, The South China Morning Post reported that the University of Maryland had invented a Thought Reading Machine. The original purpose of this invention was to help authorities investigate severe car accidents. It was to be used on people who were severely injured to get their accounts of how the accidents occurred. In the spring of 1984, Yu was a lieutenant colonel serving in the National Defense Department of Taiwan. At that time, Yu read a classified document from the department that he serviced under. The document said the Military Police Department of Taiwan had purchased several of the Mind Reading Machines from the United States (In Taiwan, it was called Psychological Language Machine). The document was a request to the United States for parts to repair several malfunctioning machines. The machine allegedly uses microwaves to deliver spoken messages directly to the human brain, as well as using radio waves to hypnotize people or change their thoughts. Yu reports that before he left, this machine had become the most effective weapon for the security departments of Taiwan. In 1993, Defense News announced that the Russian government was discussing with American counterparts the transfer of technical information and equipment known as “Acoustic Psychocorrection.” The Russians claimed that this device involves the transmission of specific commands via static or white noise bands into the human subconscious without upsetting other intellectual functions. Demonstrations of this equipment have shown encouraging results after exposure of less than one minute and have produced the ability to alter behavior on unwilling subjects. A US Department of Defense medical engineer claimed in 1989 that the U.S. and Israel had regularly used microwaves to condition and control the minds of Palestinians. Unclassified ELF-Type Weapons Remote physical manipulation: Not covered in this document. At time of writing, that technology appears to be classified. Transmission methods for neuro-effective signals: This includes pulsed microwave (i.e., like radar signals) and ultrasound and voice-FM (transmitted through the air). Also known as “Synthetic Telepathy.” While transmission of speech, dating from the early 1970s, was the first use of pulsed microwave, neuro-effective signals can now cause many other nerve groups to become remotely actuated. That specific technology is classified. Pavlovian hypnotic triggers: A [Pavlovian] hypnotic trigger is a phrase or any sensory cue that the subject is programmed to involuntarily act in a certain way. MKULTRA survivors can still be triggered from programming done decades ago. One of the main goals of the institutional/drug/child abuse phases of the CIA MKULTRA atrocities (1950′s through 1970′s) was to implant triggers using a “twilight state” (half-conscious)medication and tape-recorded hypnosis. The ultimate goal was to have the acting out of Pavlovian triggers erased from the victim’s memory. These triggers are now planted using either of the above two transmission methods, but with the words moved up just above (or near the top of) the audible frequency range. The result is that hypnotic triggers are planted without the subject being aware. This technology was used in the Gulf War as “Silent Sound.” Through-wall surveillance methods: This includes top end of microwave (near infrared), and the so-called “millimeter wave” scanning. This method uses the very top end of the microwave radio signal spectrum just below infrared. To view small objects or people clearly, the highest frequency that will penetrate nonconductive or poorly-conductive walls is used.Millimeter wave scanning radar can be used in two modes: The first is passive (no radiated signal) and uses background radiation already in the area to be scanned. It is totally undetectable. The active system uses a (low power millimeter wave) “flashlight” attached to the scanner. Thought reading: Thought reading can be classed as a form of “through wall surveillance” technology. In the unclassified and commercial realms, it is called thru-skull microwave reading, and magnetic skull-proximity reading. Brain entrainment: This involves moods and sleep states, the reverse of biofeedback. The low frequency electrical brain rhythms are characteristics of various moods and states of sleep. Not only can they now be read out using biofeedback equipment or EEG machines, but also radio, sound, contact electrodes, or flashing lights. These moods and sleep states can be generated or at least encouraged using brain entrainment devices. Brain entrainment signals cannot carry voice, which is a much higher frequency range. Brain entrainment can, however, be used to “set up” a target to make him/her more susceptible to hypnosis. Implantation: (no longer required) Specific ELF Weapons Ultrasound and Voice-FM: Main advantage in mind control work is that it can carry verbal hypnosis, more potent than simple biorhythm entrainment. An example is Chicago’s Airport Terminal connection tunnels and their “Keep Walking.” Steady tone, near the high end of hearing range (15,000 Hz). Hypnotist’s voice, varying from 300 to 4,000 Hz, fed into a frequency modulator, where the voice controls the frequency. Output is now a steady tone, sounding like tinnitus, but with hypnosis embedded. While the brain can hear and understand, the ear only hears a “tone” or a “rush.” Most Common Known ELF Effects: Here is a list of most of the common effects. It is intended to show how the various induced stress effects are broken down. Indent levels are used to show categories and sub-categories: Invasive At-a-Distance Body Effects (including mind): Sleep deprivation and fatigue: Silent but instantaneous application of “electronic caffeine” signal, forces awake and keeps awake Loud noise from neighbors, usually synchronized to attempts to fall asleep Precision-to-the-second “allowed sleep” and “forced awakening”; far too precise and repeated to be natural Daytime “fatigue attacks”, can force the victim to sleep and/or weaken the muscles to the point of collapse Audible Voice to Skull (V2S): Delivered by apparent at a distance radio signal Made to appear as emanating from thin air Voices or sound effects only the victim can hear Inaudible Voice to Skull (Silent Sound): Delivered by apparent at a distance radio signal; manifested by sudden urges to do something/go somewhere you would not otherwise want to; silent (ultrasonic) hypnosis presumed Programming hypnotic “triggers” – i.e., specific phrases or other cues which cause specific involuntary actions Violent muscle triggering (flailing of limbs): Leg or arm jerks to violently force awake and keep awake Whole body jerks, as if body had been hit by large jolt of electricity Violent shaking of body; seemingly as if on a vibrating surface but where surface is in reality not vibrating Precision manipulation of body parts (slow, specific purpose): Manipulation of hands, forced to synchronize with closed-eyes but FULLY AWAKE vision of previous day; very powerful and coercive, not a dream Slow bending almost 90 degrees BACKWARDS of one toe at a time or one finger at a time Direct at-a-distance control of breathing and vocal cords; including involuntary speech iv. Spot blanking of memory, long and short term Reading said-silently-to-self thoughts: Engineered skits where your thoughts are spoken to you by strangers on street or Real time reading sub vocalized words, as while the victim reads a book, and BROADCASTING those words to nearby people who form an amazed audience around the victim Direct application of pain to body parts: Hot-needles-deep-in-flesh sensation Electric shocks (no wires whatsoever applied) Powerful and unquenchable itching, often applied precisely when victim attempts to do something to expose this “work” “Artificial fever”, sudden, no illness present v. sudden racing heartbeat, relaxed situation Surveillance and tracking: Thru-wall radar and rapping under your feet as you move about your apartment,on ceiling of apartment below Thru-wall radar used to monitor starting and stopping of your urination . water below turned on and off in sync with your urine stream Loud, raucous artificial bird calls everywhere the victim goes, even into the wilderness Invasive Physical Effects at a Distance (non-body): Stoppage of power to appliances (temporary, breaker ON) Manipulation of appliance settings Temporary failures that “fix themselves” Flinging of objects, including non-metallic Precision manipulation of switches and controls Forced, obviously premature failure of appliance or parts External Stress-Generating “Skits”: Participation of strangers, neighbors, and in some cases close friends and family members in harassment: Rudeness for no cause Tradesmen always have “problems”, block your car, etc. Purchases delayed, spoiled, or lost at a high rate Unusually loud music, noise, far beyond normal Break-ins/sabotage at home: Shredding of clothing Destruction of furniture Petty theft Engineered failures of utilities Sabotage at work: Repetitive damage to furniture Deletion/corruption of computer files Planting viruses which could not have come from your computer usage pattern Delivered goods delayed, spoiled, or lost at a high rate Spreading of rumors, sabotage to your working reputation Direct sabotage and theft of completed work; tradesmen often involved and showing obvious pleasure In summary, the effects include: To the Brain: Forced memory blanking and induced erroneous actions Induced changes to hearing. Both apparent direction and volume, and sometimes even content Reading and broadcasting thoughts. “How can that lady talk with her mouth closed?” Vivid controlled dreams. Forced waking visions: some synched with forced body motion Microwave hearing Sleep prevention each nigh, at exactly the same time (for weeks) To the FaceL Sudden violent itching inside eyelids Forced manipulation of airways, including externally controlled forced speech “Transparent eyelids” Artificial tinnitus (ringing in ears) Forced movement of jaw and clacking of teeth To the Body: Wilding racing heart without cause Remotely induced violent no-rash itching Forced nudging of arm during delicate or messy work causing injury or spills Forced “muscle quaking” on large muscles on the back or other unexplainable vibrations and cases of repeated fresh watch batteries dying then forced precision manipulation of hands. Sometimes synched to the forced waking visions. Special attention to genital area: itching, forced orgasm, intense pain, “hot needles” Intense general pain in the legs, like stings. 21.Brain Transmitters What They Are and How They Are Used Mediaeko Investigative Reporting Group 1996 Reprint REVISED Radio Implants and Remote-Controlled Humans Brain Transmitters What They Are and How They Are Used Doctors in Sweden began placing brain transmitters in the heads of anesthetized patients without the personsf knowledge in about 1960. The insertion was conducted through the nostrils and took only a couple of minutes to perform. Implanted devices can remain in a personfs head for life. The energy to activate the implants is transmitted by way of radio waves. Professor Jose Delgado wrote about the technology in Physical Control of the Mind in 1969. The Technology and Its Possibilities Brain transmitters have been thought to be impossible by the majority of people and have been relegated to science fiction. The fact is that scientists developed the technology into reality at least forty years ago. By means of two-way radio communication called telemetry, or remote control, one can send wavelengths round trip to a brain transmitter in a personfs head. The wavelengths flow through a personfs brain, then return to a computer where all aspects of a human beingfs life are uncovered and analyzed. By means of two-way radio communication called telemetry, or remote control, one can send wavelengths round trip to a brain transmitter in a personfs head. The wavelengths flow through a personfs brain, then return to a computer where all aspects of a human beingfs life are uncovered and analyzed. To allow brain waves, measured by electroencephalograph (EEG), to be analyzed by a computer instead of through a printout offers new possibilities of interpretation. The charting of mental thoughts, vision, hearing, feelings, and behavioral reactions can lead to an analysis of the foundation of personality. It allows one to study the psyche more completely. In addition, one can follow chemical reactions, observe patterns of neurons, or follow an illness or disease and analyze it at an earlier stage of development. All of the above and much more can be discovered with bio-medical telemetry.[2] During the 1960s, brain transmitters as small as a half of a cigarette filter made it possible for doctors to implant them in patients easily and without surgery.[3] Two-way radio communication throughout the world to the brain was possible by the late 1950s. This was done in many ways. For example, vocal messages could be sent by radio waves to receivers placed in the head, where a person with an attached transmitter could answer directly to a central location with his thoughts, by brain waves data (EEG) carried with radio signals.[4] Distances were not a problem, since radio waves could travel globally at the speed of light. Implanted brain transmitters (biotelemetry devices) have been reported since the 1960s: gTwo patients instrumented for intracerebral radio stimulation and recording engage in spontaneous activities (one is playing the guitar) in the psychiatric ward in the presence of the doctor (VM). Explorations of the brain can be performed for as long as necessary without disturbing the patients.h . J.M.R. Delgado, V. Mark, W. Sweet, F. Ervin, G. Weiss, G. Bach-y- Rita, and R. Hagiwara, gIntracerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording in Completely Free Patients,h The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1968, October; 147(4): pages 329-40. Liquid crystals which are injected directly into the bloodstream and fasten themselves to the brain have been developed in the last ten years. It works on the same principle as the usual transmitters and uses the same technology and contains the same possibilities.[5] [6] How It Began – Experiments with the Brain As early as the 1920s, European scientists made discoveries which paved the way for future development of brain stimulation. The Swiss W. R. Hess could identify 4,000 different places in the brainfs hypothalamus, which are in direct contact to certain physical and mental reactions. By stimulating specific points in the brain by an electrical current, the stimulation of one point of the brain could bring about aggressive reactions, while the stimulation of another point could bring about calmness. Through electrical currents to the brain, Dr. Hess could change peoplesf personalities, bring about feelings of happiness or sadness, hunger or satisfaction, etc. All of this was achieved over seventy years ago. To the Present and Victims for Life Brain transmitters, also called electrodes, stimoceivers, and endoradiosondes, can control the brain and transmit data. They can be used to influence people to conform to a political system. They can be applied to remotely monitor and control human beings to serve as agents. The technology exists and is being utilized. The devices usually remain in a personfs head for life. gAutonomic and somatic functions, individual and social behaviors, emotional and mental reactions may be evoked, maintained, modified, or inhibited, both in animals and in man, by electrical stimulation of specific cerebral structures. Physical control of many brain functions is a demonstrated fact. … It is even possible to follow intentions, the development of thoughts, and visual experiences,h wrote Dr. Jose Delgado in the book Physical Control of the Mind in 1969. At that time Dr. Delgado was a Professor of Physiology at Yale University, where he developed techniques for electronically and chemically influencing the brain. He has published more than two hundred scientific works and is a well-known authority in neurology and behaviorism. In the preface to the book, it is written that Dr. Delgado, g… shows how, by electrical stimulation of specific cerebral structures, movements can be induced by radio command, hostility may appear or disappear, social hierarchy can be modified, sexual behavior may be changed, and memory, emotions and the thinking process may be influenced by remote control.h[7] It is possible to change people, create illness, modify opinions, and dull or activate the senses by penetrating centers of the brain with radio waves. People then obey controllers instead of their own natural choices. Monitoring of individualsf brain activity can instantly reveal all private experiences and observations of others.[8] gThis is the second implanted transmitter; this device appeared under rather unusual circumstances on 10th March 1972, when I became tranquilized in the hotel where I was temporarily lodging. This implantation preceded a period of prolonged torture with personality-altering radio signals 10 – 20 hours a day and they started communicating directly with my brain. It was then I realized that they could discern my thoughts and, indeed, experience my entire range of cognitive activity. … The picture was taken at Karolinska Hospital where all radiographers deny that any foreign object can be identified in this picture. However, there are a number of overseas physicians who testify the obvious fact, that several transmitters can be seen quite clearly.h . Robert Naeslund, INMC, Open Letter, Stockholm, Sweden, May 1993, page 32. Dr. Robert G. Heath, of Tulane University, has implanted as many as 125 electrodes in a human beingfs brain. In his experiments, he discovered that he could control his patientsf memories, sexual arousal, fear, pleasure, and cause hallucinations. Overriding Proof Against the Hospitals gIn response to your most recent letter regarding the roentgen films, I can only confirm that some foreign objects, most likely brain transmitters, have been implanted at the base of your frontal brain and in the skull,h wrote Professor Petter Aaron Lindstrom from California to one of his Swedish patients. The patient was a victim of an implantation of a brain transmitter over twenty-five years ago. Dr. Lindstrom, who taught at the University of California, San Diego, added, gThere is no excuse for doctors to implant brain transmitters in peoplefs heads.h There is complete evidence that Sodersjukhuset, Karolinska, Nacka, and Sundsvall hospitals, among others in Sweden, have implanted brain transmitters without the permission or knowledge of the patients for many decades. Mental Patients Utilized Investigations at different mental hospitals in Sweden have shown that a great number of patients out of fifty interviewed, thought themselves to be victims of long-term medical experiments. A number of these patients were actually in need of mental care due to the experiments. There were also many at the hospitals who were forcibly placed there because they had declared that a transmitter had been implanted in their heads during an operation, or in conjunction with admittance to the mental hospital. Checks were made of all groups with electronic devices which confirmed that there were radio waves traveling from brain transmitters in many patients.[9] Interviews with patients were done at Langbro Hospital, Beckomberga Hospital, as well as at Karolinska Hospital Psychiatric Clinic. The radio waves which pass through the brain are not necessarily registered by one who has a brain transmitter. Only when the effect is greatly increased, for example when experiments are performed, is it possible for the victim to detect them. gThis is the third transmitter placed in my head and the first which was embedded in my brain. Without doubt it was implanted while being detained by the police in Stockholm 1973; this was my first period of custody and afterwards I underwent considerable personality modification, a process which had already begun in 1967 but accelerated rapidly towards criminality after the implantation of the second transmitter.h . Robert Naeslund, INMC, Open Letter, Stockholm, Sweden, May 1993, page 32. One of the letters from P.A. Lindstrom, M.D., to his patient that is an implants victim. Electronic Measurements This picture shows the frequencies 18.5 – 18.7 kHz which were sent from a brain transmitter. The chart was created by a printer connected to a radio frequency analyzer computer during measurements from a transmitter in a personfs skull. While measuring other persons, the wavelengths were counted at similar values. Long wavelengths are commonly used since they work over vast distances at the speed of light, and the frequencies are often between 15 – 35 kHz.[10] The radio waves are called gfrequency shifth signals and can flow within a certain wavelength area. They do not occur in a decided frequency, but rather through a special modulation, the radio waves identity. The bandwidth was 150 Hz and the effect in all measurements was between 1 – 10 microvolts. Measurements were done with the following electronic devices: Hewlett & Packard Spectrum Analyzer 3585 A Roedre & Schwarts VLF-HF Receiver EK 070 Marconi Spectrum Analyzer Dynamics SD 375 Spectrum Analyzer Nicolets Radio Frequency Analyzer Computer Court Trials in Canada were heard against a number of hospitals in Montreal in 1989. The hospitals were accused of carrying on long painful experiments with patients which began in the 1950s. One of Canadafs most honored doctors, Ewen Cameron, Head Doctor at Royal Victoria Hospital and Allen Memorial Institute, worked on assignments from the Secret Police that ordered experiments with, among other things, brain transmitters.[11] gFurthermore, it can be seen that electrodes placed in the occipital lobe are blocking the blood flow behind their delimitation where the oxygen depletion is caused and this is seen as well in his frontal brain just above the implanted transmitter. Among the changes caused by the frequencies affecting his brain, the reduced oxygen levels have induced an alteration of neurological functions, and impaired cognitive abilities including that of memory. Moreover he [Mr. NfTumba] has obviously been anesthetized without his knowledge so that this implantation could be performed. … The x-ray examination was performed at Brook Hospital Main, September 16, 1992.h . INMC, Letter to British Prime Minister John Major, Stockholm, Sweden, October 9, 1992. g… a meeting between Mr. John Austin-Walker, Member of Parliament, and a victim of mind control, impressed on him the importance of pursuing investigations into the matter …h . INMC, Letter to British Prime Minister John Major, Stockholm, Sweden, October 9, 1992, page 1. Many Others Cry for Help Doctors at the World Health Organizationfs (WHO) office in Copenhagen say that many Swedes write to them, stating that they have been exploited for hospital experiments. Many say that devices must have been implanted in their heads. The United Nationsf information office in Copenhagen also says that upset residents of Sweden have contacted them and have sought help as victims of hospital experiments. Amnesty International in Stockholm and Copenhagen tell a similar story, as well as the Citizensf Rights Movement, representatives of the Green Party of Sweden, and a number of female members of the Swedish Parliament. Those who contact the National Swedish Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen) about this issue are sent to Department Ptp (formerly HS4 and SN3). Then they are informed that they are psychologically ill and that they run the risk of being admitted to a mental hospital if they continue to talk about a device in their heads. Additionally, they are told that brain transmitters do not exist. Swedish Board of Health and Welfare The person Dr. Lindstrom later helped had by 1977 written to authorities in Sweden and explained to them to what he had been subjected. Among those he wrote to was the General Director of the Board of Health and Welfare. Declared Mentally Ill Dr. Annmari Jonson at the Board of Health and Welfare referred to the letter a year later when she explained, gHe intensely maintains everything which he had written to the Board of Health and Welfare. He exhibits, in this way, obvious misconceptions and points clearly to the need for psychiatric examination.h The examination was conducted in 1978 by Dr. Janos Jez, who wrote: gHe says that he is convinced that a device was applied in his head during an operation at Sodersjukhuset. He ought to be considered dangerous if this pattern of misconceptions cannot be erased; and if he then begins to doubt his ideas and thereafter begins to have insight into his illness. He should therefore be committed to an asylum.h Five years later Dr. Lindstrom wrote, g… I can only confirm that some foreign objects, most likely brain transmitters, have been implanted at the base of your frontal brain and in the skull. … I fully agree with Lincoln Lawrence who in his book on page 27 wrote: eThere are two particularly dreadful procedures which have been developed. Those working and playing with them secretly call them R.H.I.C. and E.D.O.M.. Radio Hypnotic Intracerebral Control and Electronic Dissolution of Memory.fh The patient wrote to both the doctors and the Board of Health and Welfarefs General Director, Barbro Westerholm, and included a copy of Dr. Lindstromfs declaration. However, none of them desired to answer, which indicates both the Board of Health and Welfarefs attitude towards the issue, and even the doctorsf guilt.[12] What Brain Transmitters Look Like The above photographs are of brain transmitters. The above one on the left is an enlargement taken from an X-ray. The above picture on the right was taken at an operation to remove the implant.The above one on the right shows the shape of the most usual type of brain transmitter. It looks like a bullet and is put into place through the nose. This device was inserted during an operation at Sodersjukhuset in Stockholm by Dr. Curt Strand at the end of the 1960s, without the knowledge or consent of the patient. It was placed just underneath the brain. This implant is the same shape on both sides and its actual length is 16 millimeters (mm) or .62 inch, with a width of 7 mm (.27 inch).The above picture to the left shows a brain transmitter which has the shape of a mushroom. It was implanted through a surgical opening in the forehead. Its actual size is 7 mm (.27 inch) across the head, while the stem is 4 mm (.16 inch).Most implant victims are unaware of the devices because they were sedated during the procedures. Then they are amnesic, monitored, and controlled. However there are some disclosures. gThis is the fourth transmitter in my head and it was inserted in connection with an appearance at Nacka Police Station, just outside Stockholm, on 26th November 1975, ostensibly for interrogation. I was locked up in a cell, but after a short while I fell into a deep sleep from which I emerged to an entirely new life. It is during these hours when the transmitter was implanted, and when, I awoke I had a searing high frequency signal at about 100 db in my skull. This was to plague me for about 16 hours a day for the past eight years and completely transform my life. It depressed the functional capacity of my right cerebral hemisphere and altered my personality, behavior, and abilities as if they no longer were part of myself.h . Robert Naeslund, INMC, Open Letter, Stockholm, Sweden, May 1993, page 32. Doctors Warn Dr. Robert J. Grimm of the Good Samaritan Hospital in Portland, Oregon, stated in March 1974 at a doctorfs symposium in California, that he viewed brain control and influencing the brain with radio waves was of similar importance as to the debate concerning the detonation of the first atomic bomb in Hiroshima. He also asked, gDo scientists have the right to pursue projects potentially destructive of human life, and in this era, destructive of the individual?h And Protest to the Swedish Government The chairman of an internationally influential scientific organization in Canada, Dr. Andrew Michrowski, wrote in 1985 to the Swedish government and sought an answer about Swedenfs obvious encroachment of human rights. He saw clear evidence that Swedish doctors implanted brain transmitters in patients, and referred to the Declaration of Human Rights signed by Sweden. The Swedish government did not reply. gThis X-ray shows three transmitters in the frontal lobes. All of these were implanted on different occasions by the Swedish police. The detainee had been put to sleep unaware, as usual, at the police remand center in Stockholm. A doctor writes in his statement concerning this X-ray: e…Later I received your additional skull film which clearly demonstrated some implanted transmitters, one inside the brain and two probably just underneath the brain.f The upper arrow indicates the object lodged completely within the brain. All these transmitters were inserted through the nostrils and implanted into the frontal lobes in the vicinity of the upper opening of the nasal passage.h . Lennart Lindquist, Evamarie Taylor, and Robert Naeslund, Cybergods, Stockholm: Gruppen, 1996, page 11. Another medical opinion about X-rays, g… taken at Karolinska Hospital where all radiographers deny that any foreign object can be identified.h . INMC, Open Letter, Stockholm, Sweden, May 1993, page 32. FOA Educates Doctors Since the 1960s, the Swedish Defense Research Institution (FOA) has educated hospital doctors, mostly surgeons and psychiatrists, regarding brain transmitters and bio-medical telemetry. One of the books which was used twenty-five years ago at FOAfs Department 3 in education had the title Bio-Medical Telemetry (1968), written by Dr. Stuart Mackay. Dr. Mackay wrote in the introduction that, gThe purpose of this book is to introduce a wide segment of the scientific community to the rapidly developing field of bio-medical telemetry. It presents to physicians, engineers, and scientists information about the possibilities of different telemetric methods. It gives biologists a background in electronics to enable them to choose equipment.h The former head of FOA, Lars-Erik Tammelin, and the following director, Bo Rydbeck, are medical doctors with advanced knowledge in biology. When Bo Rydbeck became head of the FOA in 1985, he said in an interview in the newspaper Dagens Nyheter that, gAmong the current assignments, more intensive effort will be put into information technology.h Which includes both telemetry and brain transmitters as essential parts.[13] Dr. Mackay continued in his introduction, gAmong the many telemetry instruments being used today [1968] are miniature radio transmitters that can be swallowed, carried externally, or surgically implanted in man or animals. Recent developments include pressure transmitters small enough to be placed in the eye, ultrasonic and radio units for free-swimming dolphins, units for tracking wild animals, and pill-sized transmitters of many designs and functions that can operate continuously for several years. The scope of observations that can be made is too broad to more than hint at with a few examples. … The possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the investigator.h Dr. Stuart Mackay has worked as a Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and at many foreign universities. His main fields are Medicine and Biology. Computers and the Brain gDr. Delgado is optimistic that with the increasing sophistication and miniaturization of electronics, it may be possible to compress the necessary circuitry for a small computer into a chip that is implantable subcutaneously. In this way, the new self-contained instrument could be devised; capable of receiving, analyzing and sending back information to the brain, establishing artificial links between unrelated cerebral areas, functional feedbacks, and programs of stimulations contingent on the appearance of predetermined wave patterns,h wrote Samuel Chavkin in The Mind Stealers (1978), a book about psychosurgery and mind control. Samuel Chavkin was the founder and chief editor of the Science and Medicine Publishing Company, which publishes periodicals concentrating on medical topics.In the preface to the book it is stated that, gTelemetry for the surveillance of every citizen is on the drawing boards. Chavkinfs prediction that mind-control techniques could become standard equipment of governments, prisons, and police departments is backed by forceful documentation.h[14]Biotelemetry systems that remotely gmind readh and gmind controlh have existed for decades. Brain transmitters measure EEG and send data to computers that instantly translate it into words. Implants also deliver electric shocks that control a brain and behaviors. The devices are now less than 1 mm (.04 inch) in diameter. Dr. Delgado conducted experiments in the early 1960s that placed an electrode on the eardrum (middle ear) of a cat. The device picked-up peoplefs conversations and transmitted them to a receiver for listening. According to Victor Marchetti, co-author of The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (1974), the CIA attached a tiny radio implant to a catfs cochlea (inner ear) for surveillance purposes. A few years after Delgadofs implanted gbugh experiments, Dr. Ralph Schwitzgebel developed a miniature radio receiver so that a therapist could communicate with his subject. Tiny combination microphone-transceiver-speakers are implanted inside unsuspecting peoplefs ears. The instruments transmit nearby conversations and deliver audio commands. Individuals are conditioned to obey the directives, though they are usually unaware of the voices.[15] gX-ray photograph taken the day following the operation [August 12, 1987, St. Carolus Hospital, Ji Salemba, Djakarta], the 1/2 cm [.20 inch] deep area of branded cortex can be identified, as can the implanted transmitter.h . INMC, Open Letter, Stockholm, Sweden, May 1993, page 15. Report for an x-ray examination conducted over three and a half years after an August 12, 1987 brain implant victimization. In 1985 an advertisement placed by the Swedish Citizensf Rights Movement in over thirty daily and weekly publications stated that doctors in larger hospitals in Sweden inserted brain transmitters in anesthetized patients during operations. At the same time, a letter signed by fifty people was sent to the Attorney General. The Attorney General Questioned Those who had signed the letter had read through material which showed that the reality of brain transmitters is a fact. The signers demanded an answer from the Attorney General on whether the implantation of brain transmitters is a crime or not. Those who signed the letter were representatives from different human rights groups, the Swedish Peace Movement, professors from, for example, the Royal School of Technology, lawyers, and others. The State Says Yes to Brain Transmitters The Attorney General did not reply to the letter. Instead, he sent it to the Attorney District (Overaklagaren), who said that this issue should not be considered a crime. Decision from May 15, 1985, Overaklagaren Register number AD II 76-85. However, of course it is one of the harshest crimes which the state can commit; to deny the right of the individual to his or her own brain, and to inner peace without the interference of government authorities. Since Sweden signed the Human Rights Act, it must follow the actfs assumptions. In any case, it means that a new relationship has been created between the state and the people of the country. gThere are similar signs, here and now, like in Germany during the 1930s, where the countryfs leading doctors and politicians see individuals as objects of experimentation where their brains and behaviors are changed,h wrote Samuel Chavkin about the United States in 1978. The same can be said about Sweden, the same ideas exist here. Mind-control technology has changed since the 1970s and has been developed even further.[16] X-ray of a person with two types of brain implants and an object in the jaw. This material is for publication. If you are interested as a journalist, or would like more information, please write to us. Investigation and reporting done by: Mediaeko Investigative Reporting Group Box 136 S-114 21 Stockholm, Sweden Brain Transmitters: What They Are and How They Are Used, Mediaeko, Investigative Reporting Group, 1996 Reprint, Revised.* *Adapted, revised, and reprinted from: Brain Transmitters: What They Are and How They Are Used, Mediaeko, Investigative Reporting Group, 1992. Compiled extensively from Mediaeko, Mediaecco, and International Network against Mind Controlfs (INMC) material. [1] The technology was developed in the United States in the CIA projects called gARTICHOKE,h gBLUEBIRD,h gMKDELTA,h and gMKULTRA.h The area has at different times been called ESB (Electronic Stimulation of the Brain), Brain-Computer Technology, Biological Radio-Communication, RHIC (Radio Hypnotic Intra-cerebral Control), and EDOM (Electronic Dissolution of Memory), among others. All of these are pseudonyms for bio-medical telemetry, which is the prevailing technique used for mind control in the eastern and western worlds. [2] Electroencephalograph (EEG) Telemetry System consists of transmitters, receivers, and other components used for remotely monitoring or measuring EEG signals by means of radio or telephone transmission systems (In the U.S.A. see Food and Drug Administration, Medical Devices: Classification of Neurological Devices). [3] gDr. Antoine Remond, using our techniques in Paris, has demonstrated that this method of stimulation of the brain can be applied to the human without the help of the neurosurgeon; he is doing it in his office in Paris without neurosurgical supervision. This means that anybody with the proper apparatus can carry this out on a person covertly, with no external signs that electrodes have been used on that person. I feel that if this technique got into the hands of a secret agency, they would have total control over a human being and be able to change his beliefs extremely quickly, leaving little evidence of what they had done.h . John C. Lilly, M.D., 1953: The Scientist, John C. Lilly, M.D., Berkeley: Ronin Publishing, 1988, page 91. [4] gBiotelemetry, which was developed to monitor the temperature, brain-wave activity, breathing rate, and heartbeat … Biosensors attached to the body send data by wire or radio. This information may be displayed on oscilloscopes for doctors to analyze. It can also be fed into a computer that ewatchesf the patient … Some biosensors, called endoradiosondes, can be implanted in the body. The tiny batteries that power them can be recharged by radio waves.h . Comptonfs Encyclopedia, Electronic Edition, 1995. [5] g… the American multinational company …, which blends radio transmitting material into its liquid cortisone preparation … [and] it is effective in whatever part of the body the injection is made. It is highly likely that … [it] is not unique in this way.other medical products are suspect, …h . International Network against Mind Control (INMC), Open Letter, Stockholm, Sweden, May 1993, page 38. [6] CIA documents mention gliquid crystalsh related to behavior control, e.g.: gThe project will support studies c of solid and liquid crystals c The materials to be studied will, to a large extent, also be of biological interest. c These relate to physical studies which are required to develop effective materials which will influence the human nervous system.h (1 September 1961) c gAn exploratory study concerned with c certain ferroelectric crystals. c There is also some support for structural studies of organic materials which have shown semiconductor activity.h (23 July 1962) . Project MKULTRA, Subproject 99, August 1959 . September 1962, CIA MORI DocID: 17502. [7] Instrumentation developed includes: gbrain radio stimulators, … and an optoelectric sensor for telemetry … combining multichannel stimulator and EEG telemetric instrument; transdermal stimoceivers, totally implantable for two-way communication with the brain through the intact skin; and implantable microprocessor for detection of EEG signals which are used to trigger contingent brain stimulation. … and establishment of artificial neuronal links with the aide of the computer.h . J.M.R. Delgado, M.D., gInstrumentation, Working Hypotheses, and Clinical Aspects of Neurostimulation,h Applied-Neurophysiology, 1977-78; 40(2-4): pages 88-110. [8] gTracking could also be combined with ESB by broadcasting to and from the brain. Placement of a device inside the skull or in another part of the body is technically more difficult than strapping it to the wrist, but once placed, the device is more secure and can transmit more detailed information.h . Alan Scheflin and Edward Opton, The Mind Manipulators: A Non-fiction Account. New York: Paddington Press, 1978, page 349. [9] gWho is wasting tax money on experiments using devices smaller than needle points that are injected into peoplefs bodies without consent? These people are then given shocks for eimproper behavior.f Radio frequencies are set aside by government for such experiments. … It is illegal. If the scope of this program and its CLASSIFIED nature does not scare you, think again.h . Citizens for Open and Honest Treatment of the Handicapped, Announcements, 1993. [10] gEarly workers in this field used a low-radio frequency, typically 300 to 1500 kHz, … Since 1960, transistors for operation at 100 MHz have been available, … implanted systems work very well in the region of 100 MHz. … placement of a self-contained transmitter totally within the tissue represents a somewhat different situation. The tissue absorbs energy, but it also appears to compensate for this loss by reradiation of energy and effective increase in the size of the transmitting antenna.h . Thomas B. Fryer, Implantable Biotelemetry Systems: a Report, Ames Research Center, NASA, 1970, page 65. [11] gJust what happened to Mr. NfTumba, he describes himself in a letter to us: eConcerning the brain transmitter in my head, it has been performing without my knowledge or consent … Whatfs very outrageous is that I am sharing all my vision, thoughts, images, hearings … etc. with people around me as the security services are engaging in a large scale propaganda drive to smear my character, background, behavior, emotions and motives … I have no privacy at all … I am not a spy, I am not a criminal, I am not a terrorist. Being an innocent victim of MI5 … my persecution started in June 1988.fWhat is more, there is no reason to suspect the validity of what he writes; we are overburdened with letters such as this one from the USA, Denmark, Sweden, Germany, New Zealand and our investigations in Sweden reveal a terrifying reality where the mental health services, police authorities and hospitals implant radiotransmitting devices in peoplefs heads and brains. This reality is exposed by a vast amount of X-ray material to be a chilling and gloomy vision of the future, stagemanaged for decades by the security forces in collaboration with medical and psychiatric institutions who together have created a secret power which transcends law and order and which is beyond intrusive public control.h . INMC, Letter to British Prime Minister John Major, Stockholm, Sweden, October 9, 1992, page 2. [12] gIf the stimulation Delgado plans to administer is electric, the shaft is an exceedingly thin steel-wire electrode coated with insulation except at the tip. Dozens [12] gIf the stimulation Delgado plans to administer is electric, the shaft is an exceedingly thin steel-wire electrode coated with insulation except at the tip. Dozens of such needlelike wires may be inserted from one opening and can be attached to the same socket on top of the skull, or eventually inside it. … Delgado has pioneered in the remote control of electrical stimulation. He began shaping the behavior of subjects while he was in a nearby room manning a push-button radio device. Now he can do this from thousands of feet away. At first the sockets he was using to receive radio messages were outside the scalp. Now the equipment, built under a microscope, is the size of a coin and can be planted under the scalp and so is unnoticeable in a free-moving subject. Also, the device not only receives instructions but broadcasts back the subjectfs reactions. Delgado calls it a transdermal stimoceiver.A very recent refinement, still being perfected, is for the information being received back from inside the brain to go to a tiny computer. This computer is being programmed to recognize abnormal brainwave activity. …With humans he and his associates have stimulated several areas involved in motor activity. … He caused one woman patient in his group, when she was alone in her own room, to turn her head and move her body as if she were looking for something. This was repeated. When she was asked what she was doing, the woman always had a plausible explanation. Apparently, she had no idea she was responding to the electrical stimulation of her brain. … Lawrence R. Pinneo, a … neurophysiologist … at the Stanford Research Institute, … has proved that you can think into a computer, and that the instructions you think can cause the computer to activate and move remote-control cameras and other machines. In short, the machines obey your mental instructions.Pinneo started with the motor theory of thought. This holds that verbal thinking is nothing more than subvocal speech. With a number of subjects he attached electrodes to the area of the scalp near the region where speech originates. On command they were to think of a word, such as eschoolboyf or estartf or eleft.f They were to repeat the word in their minds ten times. All this thinking of words was being registered by a computer. It averaged out a recognition pattern for each word. He proceeded to build up a vocabulary of fifteen unspoken English words that the computer could recognize. He trained the computer to recognize actually spoken words (overt speech) as well as think words (covert speech). They came out much alike in the word patterns that the computer stored away. … In his preliminary report Pinneo stated: eWe conclude that it is feasible for a human verbally to communicate both overtly and covertly with a computer using biological information [EEG] alone, with a high degree of accuracy and reliability, at least with a small vocabulary.f … This is interesting as an exercise in scientific versatility. But what would the practical applications be, assuming that 100 percent accuracy is achieved with a much larger vocabulary of words that were only thought, not spoken? cPerhaps the best practical use would be in surreptitious situations.h . Vance Packard, The People Shapers, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1977, pages 42- 43, 55, 285-286. [13] gAn essential part of biotelemetry encompasses the transmission of data. This occurs mostly with help from a surgically implanted transmitter. … The technology has been developed quite extensively in medical research.h . P.M. Persson, Swedish Defense Research Institution, FOA, 1965. [14] Publishers Weeklyfs review of The Mind Stealers, by Samuel Chavkin. [15] g… The situation just described is not our first encounter with the apparent use of medical implant devices in these harassment/mind-control cases. Another of our contacts began receiving auditory input roughly 15 years after she had 4 mm. cochlear implants placed in her ears. The evoicesf claim to be affiliated with the CIA and, among other things, expressed intentions of running this woman as an agent in denied areas by epiggybackingf their audio transmissions onto standard FM frequencies to avoid detection. …[Another] individual … also appears to have been etaggedf by some type of implant device. … During this meeting, she accepted the offer of a drink, blacked out after consuming it, and awoke four hours later, … to find that the back of her ear had been punctured and was bleeding. … She has since found two adjacent puncture marks behind her ear, which are not healing properly, and between which she can feel the presence of a ewiref measuring approximately 1/4″ length. …In yet another case involving auditory input, the individual has allegedly been informed by her evoicesf that the technologies being used against her were stolen from the CIA by a maverick employee, whose group is now targeting her from a distance of 2,000 miles. …One unusually-candid CIA spokesman also allegedly informed this individual that, ewhile the CIA does not deny having this equipment,f they edo not use it in this country.fh . Julianne McKinney, Microwave Harassment & Mind-Control Experimentation, Silver Spring, MD: Association of National Security Alumni, 1992, pages 15-16. [16] gESB, however, used in conjunction with psycho-surgery and behavior modification, offered unlimited possibilities. After experiments on laboratory animals met with success, human experimentation was enthusiastically undertaken in quest of the most reliable and absolute method of remote control of the mind. …And, in 1974, the first victim of Parkinsonfs disease treated by ESB walked gracefully out of a San Francisco hospital under his own power, thanks to portable ESB. He had a estimoceiverf implanted in his brain … The estimoceiverf which weighed only a few grams and was small enough to implant under his scalp, permitted both remote stimulation of his brain and the instantaneous telemetric recording of his brain waves. …In 1975 a primitive emind reading machinef was tested at the Stanford Research Institute. The machine is a computer which can recognize a limited amount of words by monitoring a personfs silent thoughts. This technique relies upon the discovery that brain wave tracings taken with an electroencephalograph (EEG) show distinctive patterns that correlate with individual words.whether the words are spoken aloud or merely subvocalized (thought of). … While Dr. Reed conceded that it was econceivable that thoughts could be injectedf into a personfs mind by the government, he indicated that he did not believe it had already been done. …Typically, the scientists have not been vigilant enough, for the cryptocracy already has developed remote-controlled men who can be used for political assassination and other dangerous work, … In 1967 a writer named Lincoln Lawrence published a book … [Were We Controlled? presented] a sophisticated technique known as RHIC.EDOM … Radio Hypnotic Intra- Cerebral Control.Electronic Dissolution of Memory. … eUnder RHIC, a gsleeperh can be used years later with no realization that the gsleeperh is even being controlled! He can be made to perform acts that he will have no memory of ever having carried out. In a manipulated kind of kamikaze operation where the life of the gsleeperh is dispensable, RHIC processing makes him particularly valuable because if he is detected and caught before he performs the act specified . . . nothing he says will implicate the group or government which processed and controlled him.fh . Walter Bowart, Operation Mind Control, New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1978, pages 253, 256-262. 22.THE 1950s SECRET DISCOVERY CODE OF THE BRAIN: U.S.and Soviet Scientists have Developed the Key to Consciousness for Military Purposes How The U.S. Government Won the Arms Race to Control Man A documentary with quotes by leading scientists, professionals and several independent sources By Cheryl Welsh, copyright May 1998 – http://mindjustice.org Contents Introduction This book is a description of the history and known facts of electromagnetic and neurological technology, within the framework of classified nonconsensual government experimentation. It is presented as a list of footnotes with brief commentary. It explains how the government, in particular the United States and the former Soviet Union have engineered science into a technology in order to target and control the mind and body for political and military purposes. Chapter One Email from Physician For Human Rights on cancellation of a human rights statistics project for mind control victims citing “fear for my family”. Chapter Two A 1983 Defense & Foreign Affairs article by the editor Dr. Stefan Possony on Soviet-US mind control technology. A good summary of the “big picture.” Chapter Three Jonathan Tennenbaum describes development of Soviet electromagnetic weapons and the physics and biology behind the weapons. He gives clear, concise explanations which can be verified with the current level of scientific knowledge. There are also excerpts from several articles. Chapter Four This is a list of what scientists are saying about brain research. It describes the physics, engineering and biology that is needed to develop mind control technology. This will explain what scientist believe it takes to decode the brain and the level of neurological research today. Will Russian and U.S. scientists develop neurological weapons on people or animals? This chapter logically and factually supports allegations by victims that brain functions and every nerve of the body can be controlled remotely with current technology. Chapter Five Korean brainwashing of the 1950s is briefly described. this is a turning point in the history of mind control. A few sample articles demonstrate that there was a pronounced political will to support a massive effort to control man before the Russians do, to solve the mysteries of the brain for military purposes. Chapter Six The history of science and military, corporations and government involvement from the 1940s up to today. There was a massive, classified military research effort to fight the cold war. There are many excerpts listed in support the fact that mind control technology could be developed out of the public eye and with the support of top officials. The top scientists of the nation work in teams to solve specific problems, such as the government Killian Panel, the Cybernetics Group, RAND, the secretive nongovernmental Institute for Defense Analysis and it’s JASON Group and the Golden Fleece and the Brain Research Institute. Examples are given of eminent scientists with government funding for research related to decoding the brain. Chapter Seven This is an interesting and well-documented history of sensors technology, highly classified and billions of tax dollars spent on its development during the Vietnam War. The U.S. military and corporations then sell this technology to Europe. There are many articles listed here which describe the importance and funding of bionics, replacing man with electronic eyes and ears. This is the foundation for a bureaucracy to distribute mind control technology throughout the world. Chapter Eight This chapter describes the targeting of whole populations with electromagnetic mind control. Top government officials state unequivocally that it can be developed and there have been many rumors over the years, reported in major newspapers. The goal of controlling man for political purposes continues. Here are a few of the many examples. Chapter Nine This chapter states what the brain code is in general terms. This is a summary of the Soviet discovery of the genetic code of the brain, how the U.S. surpassed the Soviets and the pioneers of this amazing history. Government mind control technology has been developed, is firmly in place today and is in the plans for the future. It is important to match the description of victim’s allegations to the mind control technology so that they may find a timely solution. Editor’s note. Some chapters are long, over 20 pages and include the original material because of their importance and for documentation. The main points of this book are highlighted and arranged with headings so that it may be skimmed. Introduction This book came about as a result of research for alleged victims of mind control experimentation. Illegal experimentation using electromagnetic weapons technology on U.S. citizens has been going on throughout the cold war, continues today and is in use as an intelligence tool and military weapon today. Please see CAHRA website for background information. This book goes to the roots of the problem. It is a beginning and establishes the who, what, why, when and where behind mind control technology. This book will put together important facts that unfortunately, the U.S. government will never admit until they are caught. The evidence is growing. It will be up to the reader to put the facts together. This book will show that scientists, governments and the military were and are interested in finding the key to human consciousness. The military would like to have ultimate control over humans. Scientists would like to find the scientific basis for consciousness. Victims of government experimentation, who can verify the sophistication of the technology know that signals of the brain can be remotely read, decoded and that simulated brain signals can also be sent to the victim. This book is a start on the path to describe the scientific basis of the technology used to destroy unwitting victims of mind control experiments. I hope that this will stimulate further research. Most scientists agree that to find the brain code would be a tremendous undertaking, like the Manhattan Project to develop the bomb, the space program to go to the moon or the gene mapping program. Funding and scientific coordination is required for projects such as this. In the 1940s, both Russia and the United States were very interested in this topic. And if there were a mind control arms race, as indicated by several independent documents, the political will would necessitate a mind control “Manhattan Project”. This book will present the basic scientific theory of the brain code as described by scientists. And it will give examples of the development of this technology and how it could be hidden from the U.S. public. Many historical facts make sense in light of this hypothesis. Why has the United States denied the “nonthermal” theory of electromagnetic effects on biological organisms and yet the Russian scientific literature documents this fact going back to the 1920s? Why is there a documented history of electromagnetic politics that leads to a U.S. cover up beginning in the 1940s? A large military project to use electromagnetic technology for military and political purposes would be a logical explanation. This history is barely beginning to be told. There have been rumors for years. When the information is finally declassified, it will be an amazing and tragic history. There is hope that a scientist who knows of this classified situation will share this information. In a similar way, the leaked confidential tobacco company papers by the tobacco employee was a heroic act and will save many children’s lives eventually, as the tobacco companies are made to change their ways. As a gesture to humanity and to save thousands of alleged victims of nonconsensual electromagnetic and neurological experimentation, this could begin the process of dismantling the cold war thinking that has allowed horrific radiation experimentation and now mind control experiments. This book starts with a small but powerful example and proves that while the best evidence is still classified, there is still proof that the U.S. government is conducting mind control experiments and using the technology without consent of the target. Next, this book will present a few representative articles written by well-known scientists and professionals on mind control and electromagnetic technology. The first article is by a Hoover Institute Fellow, Dr. Possony. It is a good overview of the whole situation. There will then be excerpts from articles on solitons and their role in mind control technology on a quantum level. Next there will be excerpts from papers by Jonathan Tennenbaum, editor of Fusion magazine. There are clear physics and biological descriptions of the mind control weapons which have been developed by the Russians. The history of this development is described and excellent footnotes for further reading are included. Other sources verify the premise that the Soviets have developed mind control technology since at least the 1940s. The next section includes excerpts from several articles and demonstrate the interest in electromagnetic technology and the brain by scientists and the military for over 50 years. Other articles will show that the brain’s electromagnetic signals can be remotely detected by SQUID. There will be current articles in support of the fact that science has decoded the brain signals so that direct communication with the brain is possible. While it is true that this is highly classified, there are still strong indications of this fact. Classification has been used to cover up radiation experiments and even though there was proof, for various reasons, it was ignored. Again, history is repeating for mind control victims. It is important to note that the highly technical and sophisticated electromagnetic technology which is briefly described in this section, matches the symptoms that victims have described and documented. This short section describes the Korean brainwashing scare of the 1950s and how much scientific effort and money was put into behavior control experiments by the CIA. This event would provide the political will necessary to fund mind control research and to start the search to find out how the Russians were brainwashing Korean soldiers and find the antidote. The search for the decoding the brain intensified in the 1950s as several article will demonstrate. The following section describes the U.S. government during the 1940s through the present time. The classification, the cold war mentality, the scientists and their interest in brain research is well-illustrated from several different sources. There are many research leads to follow. The science and government relationship that exploded during World War II has had an effect on this problem and will be briefly mentioned. The funding of scientists and how scientists worked in elite groups such as RAND corporation and the Jasons Group, a part of the Institute for Defense Analysis is described. Out of the public eye, there was no accountability and no public input. A few examples of problems are described.There is a large section on the development of sensors technology because it explains so well how the military has worked with scientists. The Electronic Battlefield by Paul Dickson is one of the few books which portrays the negative side of the military and supports his claims with many footnotes. There are many ideas on how to work on mind control technology issues that can be found in this book. The newspaper articles on electromagnetic technology which can be broadcast over populations for warfare and psychoactive effects will be listed with excerpts. The numerous citations and excerpts are listed in order to answer the question of how the government could technically do this and to show that the government was interested in this technology in order to fight the cold war. The U.S. government has decoded the brain. This is important to know about because there are allegations of abuse and there is no accountability or public input. Until someone stops the U.S. government, the problem will continue to get worse. The number of victims of government experimentation is increasing. And all of the experts say that electromagnetic weapons are as serious as the atomic bomb (see CAHRA website, nonlethal weapons.) The warnings are there.This problem has been around for years and it is highly classified but that does not mean it doesn’t exist. The many excerpts from several independent sources are adding up to the same conclusion. There is nonconsensual government electromagnetic experimentation and it is a tragedy that needs to be dealt with. On a more hopeful note, this article can prove that the mislabel of mental illness, which most victims have endured, is a thing of the past. There is too much evidence now. That is why it is important to keep researching, so that it will never happen again. Chapter One There is a problem. Here is one example of irrefutable proof. An email from a physician from the group Physicians for Human Rights is convincing evidence of the seriousness of this problem. It is one of the common replies received by victims. This doctor wrote on biological warfare and was very active in human rights issues. When asked to write a medical report on allegations by victims of electromagnetic weapons testing experimentation this was the reply on March 10, 1997. “…After a lot of consideration, I’ve decided that I cannot undertake this project. I have a family, and feel unable to subject them to any risks that might result because of my involvement.” Chapter Two The following important article was written by one of “the greatest strategic philosophers of the 20th Century”, founder of International Strategic Studies Association, former member of Mankind Research Unlimited and former psychological warfare expert with the Office of Naval Research. Dr. Possony stated that mind control is feasible and militarily important. The article is a good overview of the Soviet-U.S. race to develop mind control technology and a precise explanation for why there is illegal experimentation going on to this day. Here is the entire article, with its many research leads.Possony, Stefan.(1983,July). Scientific Advances Hold Dramatic Prospects for Psy-Strat. Defense & Foreign Affairs. P.34. Associate Editor Dr. Stefan Possony discusses how scientists are facing the prospect of messaging directly into a target mind. Whither psy-war? The history of psyops technology is about 200 years old, and it will continue to progress. Hence it is most important to look into the future. It is no longer really difficult to send messages to the targets; that is, the persons who are to be influenced. The target cannot be reached if he is not interested in the originator, nor in his message, or if his interest is perfunctory. He is unattainable also if he is bored, and if he finds it more pleasurable to listen to competitors, who are multiplying. The target cannot be persuaded to listen. It is the other way around; he may listen if he already is fully or partially persuaded, and if the program is attractive in addition to informative, and if it helps him in his activities. Psyops technology is more or less in hand. Its better utilization is at present precluded in most instances by political ineptitude and by international opposition. The importance of better programming is recognized as a theory, but new ideas and fundamental improvements are rare. Hence success often is a matter of hit or miss. At this point, let us forget about history and current events, and let us resolutely turn to the future; I want to alert you that psyops technology may advance from communicating to direct signaling. Some developments in this reqard are already taking place. X-rays and gamma rays are located at the upper end portion of the electromagnetic energy frequency spectrum. What is at the lower end? The most important of all of nature’s phenomena. Suppose it becomes feasible to affect brain cells by low frequency waves or beams, thereby altering psychological states, and making it possible to transmit suggestions and commands directly into the brain. Who is so rash as to doubt that technological breakthroughs of this general type would not be put promptly to psyops use? More importantly who would seriously assume that such a technology would not be deployed to accomplish political and military surprise? A few years ago there was much excitement about the Soviet microwave “bombardment” of the US Embassy in Moscow. Why did the KGB, then under Yuri Andropov’s leadership, embark on this seemingly scurrilous — and very prolonged –effort? There was no answer to this question, except that the KGB must have wished to harass US diplomats and cause them to worry about their health. this theory was never convincing. The question was raised whether the Soviets had discovered a technique of using microwaves for psychological purposes, and whether they were experimenting with this technique on US specialists on the USSR, unwittingly pressed into Soviet service as guinea pigs. Impossible, replied the State Department, the waves cannot break through the blood-brain barrier, and thermal effects are so negligible that the body would not be affected. Nevertheless, embassy personnel were indemnified for health damage. By 1979, at the latest, it was known that electromagnetic fields raising body temperatures less than .1 degrees Celsius may result in somatic changes. It was most surprising that such a trivial temperature rise was having any effects, and even more astonishing that those effects were significant. Chemical, physiological and behavioral changes can occur within “windows” of frequency and energy continua.One of those windows is connected with navigation in marine vertebrates and with biological rhythms of humans. Another is at the level of the human electroencephalogram (EEG), which is in the range of extremely low radio and sound waves, around 20 Hertz. Those findings remain unexplained. they seemed to require energy amplification of the initial stimulus by some 12 orders of magnitude. No such amplification was deemed to be feasible, and none was discovered. Let us cut the story to the minimum. The original model, according to which the bloodbrain barrier cannot be broken, was derived from the axiom that electromagnetic waves interact with tissue in a linear manner. However, it turned out that the molecular vibrations caused by a stimulating extracellular electromagnetic field are non-linear. Utterly unexpectedly, they take the form of soliton waves which can transfer energy along long molecular chains. By 1982 the term “soliton” finally made it to the technical dictionaries. Here is a definition from the 1982 McGraw-Hill scientific-technical dictionary: “A soliton wave…propagates without dispersing its energy over larger and larger regions of space.” As I understand it, it would be more correct to say: “A soliton wave propagates suddenly acquired energy, or energy imparted by shock, without dispersing it.” Significance? Extracellular disturbances such as acoustic or electromagnetic bursts can be propagated across the cell membrane. In this, non-linearities in molecular dynamics rather than chemical kinetics are the key. Put differently, the 12-magnitude energy deficit is overcome, not by brute force, but by the formation of solitons. Visualize the brain and its environment as structures of waves, and assume that shock waves create solitons. Then imagine that modern electronics with their flexibility, accuracy and speed are put to work. In addition, the range of resonances probably will be increased. Hence many frequencies, and several options for the transmission of energy across the membranes of brain cells may become available. This may imply that the brain cells will be reachable diversely and flexibly, and perhaps routinely. The discovery of cross-membrane coupling may be compared to the discovery of oxygen in 1772, which allowed the proof that phlogiston, the supposed element of fire, does not exist. Once the phlogiston idea was buried, chemistry and the chemical industry began their triumphal march across the world. The exploration of the cross-membrane phenomenon is only at the beginning, and it is not yet possible to anticipate practical applications. As of now a new phenomenon has been discovered, probably. Nothing is as yet known or is known publicly, on how the soliton can be aimed to produce desired effects. Only a hypothesis can be stated: If the phenomenon can be utilized, this will in due time have crucial bearing both on the body and on the brain, and on defense. The theory of cross-coupling was formulated by A.S. Davydov who it seems, published the first purely theoretical version in 1976, and followed this up with a study on “Solitons as energy carriers in biological systems”. By 1979 Davydov appeared to be linked to the Ukrainian Academy of Science. It should be noted that Russian mathematicians were concerned with solitons before US scientists ever got interested. It is therefore conceivable that Davydov achieved his results long before publication, and also that the experiments which involved the US Embassy, produced findings which led to subsequent progress. In the US, the pioneering work seems to have been done by Albert F. Lawrence and w. Ross Adey, writing in Neurological research, Volume 4, 1982. the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in Munich also discovered that cell membranes can be crossed. Eberhard Neumann and Guenther Gerisch found that a shock wave passing through an electric field may create ultra-quick processes within the membrane, and that through such “jumps in the field” (Feldsprfinge:this probably means solitons) senes can be transmitted and cells fused. There is a differential in the tension of the inner and outer membrane which averages 1/70,000 of a volt. This corresponds to 70,000 volts per(theoretical) membrane thickness of one centimeter.(The real thickness of a membrane is0.1<-8> centimeter.) The discovery was made unexpectedly in the course of research on electric fields in membranes and their impact on vital processes. This research requires measurements of events lasting not more than one nano-second(one billionth of a second), and it suggested that solitons generally increase the permeability of membranes. Thus, new perspectives on genetic “engineering” were suddenly opened. Moreover, it was possible to fuse no less than 50 cells into one supercell with 50 nuclei and one single membrane. We might as well forego assessing this monstrous novelty. The Max Planck Institute broke into the membrane, so to speak, either without knowing about Davydov, Lawrence and Adey, or after learning about them while pursuing a different goal. In either event, a fundamental innovation, a breakthrough discovery or invention will be made several times, at different places, and be persons working independently from one another. It is futile to speculate on who stands where in a race which has barely begun. But it can be postulated that the USSR probably has an ambitious research program, whereas in the US, while work is being done, no program –let alone a crash program–is in existence. It is predictable that in the wake of Andropov’s upgrading of psyops, the relevant programs in the USSR will be given an early and powerful boost. Future psyops will have to be planned for perspectives which cannot be formulated before the US embarks on a major and totally novel research and development program. Meanwhile, it must be assumed that psyops will grow world wide, in strategic importance and in new forms. The following report appeared in “Defense & Foreign Affairs Daily” on June 7, 1983: On May 20, 1983 US newspapers printed an Associated Press story from the Veterans Hospital at Loma Linda, California that the Soviets developed a device, called Lida, to bombard human brains with radio waves. The radio beams and expected to serve as a substitute tranquilizers, and to treat sleeplessness, hypertension, and neurotic disturbances. It is not yet determined whether Lida affects the immune and endocrine systems. Lida is reported to change behavior in animals. At the present, the device is on loan to Dr. Ross Adey, chief of research at Loma Linda. Adey started testing the machine three months ago, and hopes to complete his investigations within a year. According to Dr. Adey, who repeatedly visited the USSR, the Soviets have used the machine on people since at least 1960. The machine is technically described as “a distant pulse treatment apparatus”. It generates 40 megahertz radio waves which stimulate the brain’s electromagnetic activity at substantially lower frequencies. Dr. Adey was quoted as saying: “Some people theorize that the Soviets may be using an advanced version of the machine clandestinely to seek a change in behavior in the United States through signals beamed from the USSR.” No reference was made to the protracted microwaves bombardment several years ago of the US Embassy in Moscow. On April 29, 1983, Associate Editor Dr. Stefan Possony, addressing the Defense 83 meeting sponsored by Defense & Foreign Affairs, reported on Dr. Adey’s work and on the work by Dr. A.S. Davydov of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Davydov discovered how the blood-brain barrier can be penetrated by low frequency beams and directly affect cells in the brain. Possony’s remarks were delivered to a panel studying psychological warfare. [Part of that paper is printed below--Ed.] In the US research on direct brain waves has scarcely begun, and the USSR has a lead of approximately 25 years. Once it is matured the new technology will be extraordinarily significant in medicine. It also may have major impacts on communications, intelligence, and psychological operations, and permit deliberate physiological impairment. The KGB is known to be interested in the program. It is not known whether the US and other Governments are trying to determine whether their countries have become targets of clandestine brain waves beamed from the USSR. Nor are there indications that work on countermeasures is being contemplated, except perhaps in the USSR. Solitons Editor’s note. Most people have not heard of solitons. But, Dr. Possony is not the only professional discussing solitons and mind control. Here are excerpts from books and journals to give an overview of biological nonlinear effects and solitons. No author. (1979, October 27). You Cannot Be a Twentieth-Century Man Without Maths. Economist. Pg. 107. “Fortunately for pure scientist, most of the problems of basic physics and chemistry either are (or can be adequately handled as)linear problems. It is only in modern science–in particular, in quantum physics and gravity- -that non-linearities loom large. …The big news in maths is that there are recent developments which promise to make the solving of such non-linear problems possible. … One development concerns things called solitons. .. So the equations of solitons are being applied to the fields surrounding subatomic particles. A whole group of elementary particles. A whole group of elementary particles may have been missed by the existing theories. Solitons may also help to understand the force of gravity, which also behaves in a non-linear way. Although Einstein’s theory of relativity was a breakthrough in understanding gravity, there is still much to be learnt about this force. Solitons are also being used in research on climate, electronic circuits, fusion power, nerve conduction, optical materials, superconductors and a range of other engineering problems.” Remoissenet, M. 1996. Waves called solitons: Concepts and experiments, 2nd ed.Springer-Verlag. “Preface to Second Edition. …Chapter 1 was expanded by a discussion of the discovery of solitons in the field of electromagnetic waves and optics. P. 1. “Basic Concepts and the Discovery of Solitons. “Today, many scientists see nonlinear science as the most important frontier for the fundamental understanding of Nature. The soliton concept is now firmly established after a gestation period of about one hundred and fifty years. Since then, different kinds of solitons have been observed experimentally in various real systems, and today they have captured the imagination of scientist in most physical discipline. They are widely accepted as a structural basis for viewing and understanding the dynamic behavior of complex nonlinear systems.” Infeld, Eryk & Rowlands, George. 1990. Nonlinear waves, solitons and chaos. Press Syndicate of U Cambridge. p.5. “5. A theory that relies on the interaction of a small number of periodic modes also exists see Infeld (1981c). Solitons are special wave pulses which interact with one another so as to keep their basic identity and so that they act as particles. Now the soliton has come of age in its mother subject, though in the meantime promising to be a useful concept in many other effects. One of the first detailed experimental verifications of soliton type behaviour was in the study of nonlinear ion acoustic waves. “Davydov(1968),(1985) has applied some of the rules of solid state physics to the transport of energy down protein chains. He has shown that the idea of soliton propagation is essential to a study of chemical changes taking place in long protein molecules. This leads to the transfer of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and could be the basis for an understanding of muscle contraction. Though much may still remain to be done in molecular biological problems it seems likely that the concept of a soliton will remain the cornerstone of any future theory.” Chaohoa, Gu, Yishen, Li Guizhang Tu, Editors. (1990). International Conference on Nonlinear Physics , Shanghai 24-30 April 1989. p. 166. Ablowitz, MJ. et al. U Colorado. Nonlinear Evolution equations, Solitons, Chaos and Cellular Automata. Acknowledgments. This work MJA is partially supported by the NSF, O of Naval Research, & Air Force O of Scientific Research. “Among the remarkable discoveries in applied mathematics during the past twenty or so years, have been the concept of the soliton and completely integrable nonlinear partial differential equations, chaotic phenomena associated with nonintegrable equations, and the understanding of cellular automata.” Kerner, B.S. & Osipov, V.V. 1994 Autosolitons A New Approach to Problems of Self Organization & Turbulence, Vol 61. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Introduction. “…The properties of traveling autosolitons (pulses) and some other autowaves were analyzed as early as 1946 by Wiener and Rosenblueth on the basis of an axiomatic discrete model. Hodgkin and Huxley(1952) proposed and studied a model of impulse propagation in nerve fiber; …” p. 110. “…there are numerous examples of active distributed systems of highly diverse nature which may host autosolitons as well as more complicated dissipative structures and autowaves. Such are, for instance, chemical and biochemical reactions (Zhabotinskiik 1974: Nicolis – Prigogine 1977: Haken 1977),…” Chapter -Three In two articles, Jonathan Tennenbaum describes development of Soviet electromagnetic weapons and the physics and biology behind the weapons. Following the quite long Tennenbaum articles, there are several articles on the soviet development of electromagnetic and neurological technology. It is difficult to get information on this topic and to know what is going on but over a long period of time, the same facts are repeated and therefore become more verifiable and believable. For over 25 articles on Russian mind control see U.S. Human Rights Report Flatlands Publishing Ft. Bragg (707) 964 8326. It is not easy to see which is disinformation, as there certainly must be on this topic. But these are several independent sources over several decades, stating much the same theme. And the science and military implications of electromagnetic technology are by now well established. Electromagnetic-Effect Weapons: The Technology and the Strategic Implications. Wiesbaden Federal Republic of Germany Jan. 16, 1988. Executive Intelligence Review.(Executive Intelligence Review Special Report. 317 Pennsylvania Ave. S.E., 2nd Floor. Washington, DC 20003 (202) 544-7010. Pg. 7. Michael Liebig. …”This Special Report is meant to sketch the gestalt of this newly emerging Soviet threat, the dimensions of which the Western public is most dangerously unaware. There is barely any understanding in the West of the revolutionary transformations in technology and strategy associated with electromagnetic effect weapons.” Tennenbaum, Jonathan.(1988, Feb). Some ABCs of Electromagnetic Anti- Personnel Weapons. Executive Intelligence Review.Executive Intelligence Review Special Report.317 Pennsylvania Ave. S.E., 2nd Floor. Washington, DC 20003 (202) 544-7010. Pg. 9. Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum is on the Board of Directors of Fusions-Energie-Forum in the Federal Republic of Germany, and an editor of its magazine, Fusion. “Often referred to by the misleading name, “radio-frequency weapons,” The most sophisticated new type of antipersonnel weapons now being perfected by the USSR for use by its Spetsnaz and regular forces, uses pulses of electromagnetic energy to disorient, paralyze, and kill human targets. Such electromagnetic pulse (EP) weapons can take a variety of forms, including the following: … Electromagnetic pulse anti-personnel weapons have many scientific and technical features in common with the laser weapons under development in the American and Soviet anti-missile defense programs. Both use electromagnetic radiation, propagating at 300,000 kilometers per second, to achieve their destructive effect. Both require compact power sources, generators of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., lasers, magnetrons, gyrotrons, etc.), beam radiator and focusing apparatus (e.g.,optics for lasers, wave guides and phased-array antennas for microwave weapons), and computerized control systems In both cases also, the maximum effect of these weapons is obtained by “tuning” or “tailoring” the output to the characteristics of the target. The chief peculiarity of EP anti-personnel weapons lies in their exploitation of highly non-linear effects of electromagnetic radiation upon living organisms. Typically, these weapons employ complicated pulse shapes and pulse trains, involving several frequencies and modulations which can range over a wide spectrum from extremely low frequencies (ELF) into the hundred gigahertz range. Thus, although state-of-the-art technology permits construction of mobile systems of extremely high output power (up to 10 megawatts average power, peak pulsed powers of many gigawatts), it is not the high power per se which determines the lethality of the system, but rather its ability to “couple” the output effectively into the target and to exploit non-linear biological action. While high output power may be used to obtain range and breadth of effects and penetration into enclosures and defenses, the minimum lethal “dose” on target will typically be orders of magnitude less than that which would be required to kill by mere heating, in the manner of a microwave oven. The closest analogy to a sophisticated EP anti-personnel weapon is provided by powerful chemical weapons, such as nerve gases having rapid, fatal effects at extremely low concentration. In the latter case, the effect is mediated by molecules which enter nerve synapses and other critical areas and disrupt normal functions without massive destruction of tissue. The poison acts on the higher levels of organization of living process. Furthermore, it should be understood that molecules themselves are nothing but electromagnetic configurations. That is, the molecules (e.g., of the nerve gas) act via electromagnetic fields, by exchange of electromagnetic energy with other molecules. Hence, it should hardly be surprising to discover that the same effects can be induced by electromagnetic radiation alone-without the presence of the molecules! In principle it suffices to identify the precise geometrical characteristics of the electromagnetic action associated with the given substance, and then just “mimic” the molecular action by a carefully “tailored” signal. Once this principle is understood, biophysical research can define the most appropriate pulse forms for weapon applications, independently of any specific chemical “model.” That this is by no means a mere theoretical possibility is proven by a wide variety of experiments on the biological effects of “tailored” electromagnetic radiation, carried out in the West and East over the last 40 years. For obvious reasons, experiments involving lethal effects are mostly classified. To illustrate some of the relevant research areas, we present a couple of examples of well-documented non-lethal effects. Since the 1950s much scientific attention has been paid, in the East and West, to effects on the brain of 1) psychotropic drugs (LSD, depressants, stimulants, etc.) and 2) electrical stimulation of specific areas of the brain by implanted electrodes. Among other things, experiments showed that minute currents induced by electrical stimulation could evoke profound changes in brain function, similar to those obtained by psychotropic drugs, the latter often at extremely low concentrations. This work reveal some “deep secrets” of the physiological organization of the brain, secrets having potentially far-reaching military implications. Since the early 1970s a number of published experiments have shown that similar, profound neurological effects can be induced without the “substantial” intervention of drugs or electrodes, by electromagnetic fields applied from outside the experimental subject. Typical of these are those of Dr. Jose Delgado and Dr.Ross Adey. Delgado applied a slowly modulated weak magnetic field(several Gauss, pulsed at less than 100 Hz) to the heads of monkeys via external coils. Depending upon the precise modulation frequency used, specific effects were induced. Thus, one frequency caused the animals to fall asleep, and another triggered aggression, each time with very specific neurophysiological effects on specific areas of the brain. Adey and others have obtained similar neurophysiological effects with a modulated, low-power, radio-frequency field, with modulation frequencies in the range of the internal “brain waves” (EEG). Absorbed power levels were very low- on the order of a thousandth of a watt per square centimeter.Related experiments have shown that internal EEG waves can be entrained and modified, demonstrating the possibility of direct information transfer to the brain via modulated radio-frequency (RF) fields. Thus, below the threshold of lethal effects, a certain potential for subtle psychological manipulation by means of “tailored” electromagnetic signals cannot be excluded. Lethal effects have been obtained at power levels not very much higher than in behavior modification experiments. Again, it is not so much the net power as the exact form of the applied series of pulses, which makes the difference. One laboratory device, used in brain research, kills experimental animals with a single microwave pulse of 1/6 second duration. While the neurological effects of modulated RF and microwave radiation have long been a high-priority area for Soviet research, this field has tended to be played down or even suppressed in the West. For example, Delgado’s magnetic field experiments have gone nearly unnoticed in the Western scientific literature, but are a featured subject in a recent Russian book, published under the auspices of Znanyia, a cadre organization headed by top Soviet military scientist N.D. Basov. While we have concentrated here on the brain as a key target of EP weapons, this is by no means the only target. The central nervous system more generally, and vital organs, especially the heart, are all possible targets. Moreover, a very insidious deployment of EP would be to degrade the overall health of persons in a certain area by long-term, low-level irradiation. There is evidence that the latter has already been tried by the Soviets in a number of cases. Much more could be said about non-linear biological effects exploitable by EP weapons. In this short introduction, however, we want to move on to another key problem of these weapons; how to generate and deliver the destructive action to the target.This Special Report presents some details on high-power RF and microwave generators, an area of highest priority in Soviet research and development. There are two essential types of devices which can be used in EP weapons; oscillators using beams of electrons or plasmas, and solid-state devices. Solid state radar, whose development is driven by the needs of military aircraft and missiles, is one of the fastest advancing areas of electronic technology today. Although solid state devices do not (yet!) reach the very high powers attained by electron beam devices, miniaturization makes it possible to build today complete, highly sophisticated phased-array radars of suitcase-size, with several kilowatts of average output. The principal advantage of this technology is that it permits extremely sophisticated “tailoring” of pulse shape in space and time, in a compact system, with direct coupling to high-speed computers. This is exactly what is needed in order to optimally exploit non-linear biological effects. What is lost in brute power is thus gained in efficiency. Recent breakthroughs in what is called “high-temperature superconductivity” open up the perspective that both types of EP generation technology– electron beam as well as solid state–are going to undergo revolutionary improvements in the years immediately ahead. The impact of this revolution cannot even be estimated at this time, but it will certainly mean radical reductions in the size of devices having a given electromagnetic “firepower”. As our discussion of biological effects already indicated, electromagnetic anti-personnel weapons depend essentially on “tuning” the output signal to the target. This goes not only for the frequency and amplitude of the signal, but for its entire space-time “shape.” Figure 6, for example, is drawn from thermographs of models of the human body irradiated by RF radiation of the same frequency, but with field geometries. These and other experiments demonstrate, that the areas of maximum absorption of electromagnetic energy inside the body depend on the geometry of the incident wave. By choosing the right geometry, the energy can be focused into any desired area, such as the brain. A sophisticated EP weapon must thus be able to project a specific geometry of electromagnetic field onto a distant object, over a given terrain and in given surroundings. Without going into technical details of waveguides and various antenna types, we shall briefly present one of the relevant techniques: the principle of the phased array.A phased-array antenna consists of an assemblage of many individually controlled emitting (or receiving) elements, placed in a fixed geometrical arrangement. The output field of the array is the sum of the waves emitted by the individual elements. By electronically controlling the relative phases of these individual signals, the output field can be given any desired “shape” and direction, limited only by the wavelength used, the number of elements and the size of the array. The huge soviet ABM radar at Krasnoyarsk, for example, contains an 83-meter diameter phased array of thousands of elements. The output can consist of a single, very narrow beam, or hundreds of independently directed beams, all depending on the “phasing” of the elements. This radar can track large numbers of missiles simultaneously, without any mechanical motion of the antenna. The functioning of phased-array antennae is thus closely related to holography, or three-dimensional photography. In a hologram, a photographic plate records interference patterns, corresponding to the phase relationships of laser light reflected from the object. When the holographic plate is illuminated by a laser, the phase relationships are “reconstituted” and the viewer has the impression of seeing a three dimensional object. The ensemble of elements of a phased-array antenna takes the place of the holographic plate, but at a much longer wavelength than visible light (centimeters and millimeters instead of fractions of a micrometer). When operated in a receiving mode, the phased array obtains much more information than an ordinary antenna; like the hologram, it measures entire electromagnetic field geometries, not merely a onedimensional, electromagnetic “signal” The holographic principle underlying phased-array systems points to a potentiality for creating any desired three-dimensional, electromagnetic field distribution around a target object, from a distance, correcting for reflections, obstacles and other interference. Moreover, the field can be transformed and shifted from one location to another in space within a fraction of a second. Thus, an ideal EP-weapon could attack many individual targets, simultaneously or in rapid succession. One or more phased arrays would be used in receiving and transmitting modes to “lock on” to selected targets, and determine the necessary geometry of the attack pulses. To fully exploit such potentialities, the weapon would require for its target-acquisition and beam-control systems, sophisticated high speed computers, able to perform complex computations of the “inversescattering” type. Miniaturized systems of this sort are well within the reach of ‘fifth generation’ computer technology. “Hybrid” digital-analog systems would be simpler, smaller, and faster still. There is much overlap in requirements between EP weapons and systems developed for strategic defense(SDI). For concrete weapons applications, simpler devices will often suffice; trade-offs can be made among range, output power, extent of three dimensional field control, and sophistication of biological effects. As was the case earlier with nuclear weapons, many people may be tempted to think that EP anti-personnel weapons constitute “absolute weapons” against which no defense is possible. A glance at the history of the SDI, or of military science and technology in general, shows why no such thing ever has or will exist. An obvious aspect of defense is to detect, locate, and neutralize weapons before they can be used. Antenna structures of EP weapons are resonant structures which can be detected in various ways. Spetsnaz deployment of EP weapons can be countered by intercepting the weapons or weapons components in transport, by appropriate surveillance of the areas around potential targets, and by the whole range of countermeasures which can be taken against the Spetsnaz groups themselves. Of course, the EP weapon declares its existence as soon as it is turned on, and itself becomes vulnerable to rapid counterattack if readiness and appropriate means are at hand. The famous “Faraday cage” and other forms of electromagnetic shielding can provide some protection against EP weapons, especially if the characteristics of the EP signal are known in advance and countermeasures are devised accordingly. Unfortunately, a sophisticated weapon can “tailor” its pulse to get through nearly any given kind of shielding utilizing nonlinear, inverse-scattering techniques and a process known as “self-induced transparency.” A Faraday cage under certain conditions can be transformed into an antenna, focusing the signal on the inside and even enhancing the effect for the unfortunate persons inside. In theory, biological effects can be offset by creating a controlled “electromagnetic environment” around the target, with the effect of “detuning” the target relative to the anticipated signal of the attacking EP weapon – a kind of “immunization.” To realize such potentialities will require a major research effort, but one having important spinoffs for biology and medicine. The application of holographic principles to EP weaponry has profound implications for the future shape of warfare. The deployment of such weapons and the defense against them cannot be understood in terms of “point-to-point trajectory” concepts associated with conventional firearms and artillery. Actually, even in the past, competent military doctrine has always emphasized the geometries of “fields of fire” generated by overall deployment of mobile weapons over a given area, as opposed to mere “straight-line” action of an individual weapon. The geometrical aspect becomes much more explicit in the era of EP weaponry, in which “firepower counts as the ability to control the electromagnetic field geometry on the field of battle, through coordinated deployment and operation of mobile phased arrays and related devices. The situation could therefore be summed up as follows: in practice, both the use of EP weapons and defense against them is a tricky, sophisticated business, if the antagonists are at comparable levels of technology, knowledge, and preparation. A surprise attack against an unprepared enemy is simpler and very devastating. In this respect, EP weapons are no exception to the general rules of warfare.” Tennenbaum, Jonathan.(1988). Soviet Work on Electromagnetic Pulse Weapons. Executive Intelligence Review. Pg. 17 The 1987 edition of the U.S. Department of Defense review, Soviet Military Power, contains the following stern warning about the current Soviet mobilization to perfect electromagnetic pulse (EP) weapons: “Recent Soviet developments in the generation of radio-frequency (RF) energy have potential applications for a fundamentally new type of weapon system that would degrade electronics or be used in an anti-personnel mode. The Soviets already have or are working on much of the technology for such a system. In their research the Soviets have generated single pulses with peak power exceeding 1 billion watts and repetitive pulses of over 100 million watts.. No significant technological obstacles stand in the way of a prototype short-range tactical RF weapon.” In this Special Report, we shall document that the U.S.S.R. presently possesses the essential technological base, plus knowledge of advanced biophysics, to realize a wide variety of tactical and strategic electromagnetic anti-personnel weapons. We shall demonstrate this from the Soviets’ own technical publications. Fortunately, we are not able to show pictures of EP weapons on parade in Red Square-if we could, it would be too late! Figure 1 shows, on a map of the U.S.S.R., some of the known centers of Soviet work on the science and technology of EP weapons. For example, advanced high-power microwave generator work is carried out at the Applied Physics Institute in Gor’kiy near Moscow, at several institutes in Tomsk, at the Moscow Lebedev Institute, in Lengingrad, Novosibirsk, and other locations. Advanced biophysical research of military importance is going on at the Institute for Biological Physics (G.M. Franck) at Pushchino near Moscow, at the Siberian Division of the Academy of Medical Sciences at Novosibirsk, at several institutes in Alma Ata, in Vladivostok, and at a number of establishments linked to the Soviet manned space program. (There is significant overlap between space medicine and the biophysics of EP weapons effects.) The question marks on the map indicate that only a very small part of the relevant research and development ever finds its way, even obliquely, into available Soviet technical journals. Military secrecy is much stricter and all-encompassing in the East than the West. An interesting article appeared this year by one V.M. Koldayev in the Soviet journal Biologicheskiye Nauki dealing with “The Correction of Acute Microwave Exposure by Drugs-Experimental Results.” In the article a large number of pharmaceuticals are evaluated for their capability of enhancing the resistance of the human organism to microwave radiation. Both preventive treatment, before exposure, and post-exposure treatment are discussed. Koldayev stresses a point which is key to the Soviet approach to microwave and radio-frequency effects: “Intensive microwave radiation changes the membrane characteristics of cells and ion transport, generates electrical breakdown at the boundaries of phase regions and other effects causing a destruction of living processes. Research in recent years has shown that the ‘thermal conception’ of microwave effects is inadequate.” Kolayev points to a major stumbling-block of Western biophysical research: the absurd, but stubborn insistence on the part of the Western research “establishment”, that electromagnetic radiation could have no other effect on a living organism than to increase its temperature (I.E., in Koldayev’s words, the “thermal conception”). As a result of this blind spot, many Western specialists still refuse to accept the existence of precisely those kinds of effects upon which the most lethal Soviet EP weapons depend. The Soviets presently lead the world in research into a crucial, but not much publicized field called “optical biophysics,” sometimes referred in the West as “bioelectromagnetics,” which deals with the electromagnetic organization of living processes. Although modern research into this area goes back to Louis Pasteur, the most consistent and sustained efforts were launched in Russia by V.I. Vernadsky (1863-1945), the physicist biologist, geologist, and architect of the Soviet atom bomb project. Vernadsky’s scientific training focused on the works of Pasteur and radioactivity pioneer Pierre Curie, and included visits to the Pasteur Institute and other leading European science institutes. Vernadsky initiated the systematic search for reserves of uranium and other technically crucial minerals throughout the Russian empire, and was a key organizer of the pre-World War I economic mobilization in Russia. As founding director of the State Radium Institute in Leningrad, Vernadsky launched in 1926 a crash program of fundamental research into the “physical geometry” of living processes, which would include a comprehensive study of their interaction with electromagnetic radiation: “Only a few of the invisible radiation’s are known to us at present. We have hardly begun to realize their diversity and the inadequacy of our knowledge of these radiations which surround us and pass through us in the biosphere, and to understand their basic role in the processes going on around us, a role which is difficult to comprehend by those accustomed to other conceptions of the Universe…We are surrounded and penetrated, at all times and all places, by eternally changing, combining and opposing radiation of different wavelengths–from 10 millionths of a millimeter to several kilometers.” Out of Vernadsky’s program came the Soviet military slogan: “He who controls the entire electromagnetic spectrum will dominate the world.” It was Vernadsky who coined the now-common term “biosphere,” emphasizing the fact that the totality of living matter on the Earth forms a coherent process in powerful mutual interaction with the climate and geophysical conditions of the planet. This work was the basis of the concept of “planetary war” advocated by Marshal Ogarkov, according to which all available scientific knowledge concerning the biosphere is to be mobilized in war in order to crush the enemy. This includes development of means of weather modification, manipulation of the ionosphere and other layers of the atmosphere, large-scale biological warfare, triggering of natural disasters, as well as global electromagnetic warfare. Vernadsky’s efforts provided the scientific atmosphere for the launching of the most powerful current of Soviet biophysical research, that associated with Alexander Gurvich(1874-1954). Gurvich was the first to systematically demonstrate that absorption of minute amounts of “tuned” electromagnetic radiation, down to individual quanta, can decisively influence the course of biological events. This is now known in the Soviet literature as the “informational role of electromagnetic radiation in biological systems.” In connection with this research, Gurvich developed that first “field theory” approach to the geometry of living processes, and discovered the universal ultraviolet light emission of cells called “mitogenetic radiation”. He was the first to point to the capability of biological molecules such as proteins and DNA, to absorb energy at long wavelengths and reemit the stored energy at much shorter wavelengths-phenomena which are intensively studied today under the name of “multiphoton processes in non-linear spectroscopy.” Gurvich was thereby a pioneer in the area of advanced research which is decisive for the most devastating forms of electromagnetic anti-personnel weapons. Gurvich’s student G.M. Franck founded the Institute of Biological Physics in Pushichino, which still bears Franck’s name, and is today a key center of military-related research on electromagnetic pulse effects on biological systems. Another Gurvich disciple, Prof. Vlail Kaznacheev, heads the Medical Division of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk, with close ties to the military space establishment. Kaznacheev carried out a decade-long series of experiments on the electromagnetic basis of the pathogenic action of viruses and poisons. Another member of the Gurvich school, Alma Ata biophysicist Inyushin, wrote an article in the Red Army paper Krasnaya Zvezda in 1984, declaring that breakthroughs of “revolutionary significance” were being made in the optical biophyscis field. Since then, Inuyushin’s name completely dropped out of Soviet scientific literature, indicating that he is now working in a top secret program. Indeed, almost the entirety of the huge Soviet effort in biophysics of the Gurvich-Vernadsky variety has “gone underground” since 1983-84. One indicative area of continued Soviet publications is on the “non-thermal” effects of low-level microwave radiation in the millimeter wavelength band. Since at least the late 1960s, a U.S.S.R.-wide network of more than 21 institutes has conducted research into this field, led by Prof. N.D. Deyatkov of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. This research is continuing to this day. Late last year, for example, the Soviet microwave technology journal Radioelektronika published two long papers on biological effects, written by known members of the Deyatkov group. These papers discussed the mechanisms by which millimeter radiation interacts with internal electroacoustical oscillations, notably in cell membranes, to generate the resonant, frequency-dependent effects documented in a large number of experiments. The significance of these sorts of publications is not that they give a direct “peek through the window” at weapons-development; rather, they indicate an orientation of “civilian’ basic research programs to the type of phenomena of relevance to weapons applications. (It is unlikely that electromagnetic anti-personnel weapons would work with pure millimeter waves. Millimeter-band “harmonics” would be included in complex pulse forms, however.) Unfortunately, Devyatkov’s area of research was all but closed down in the U.S., following the conclusion of “biological warfare accords” between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. in the early 1970s-another concession from which the Soviets have extracted great strategic profit. The capability to generate controlled high-power pulses of electromagnetic energy has long been a top priority area for Soviet applied physics research and development. It even has its own name in the Soviet literature, for which no direct equivalent term exists in the West: sil’notochnaya elektronika. It includes things like explosive cathodes and other technology for highcurrent relativistic particle beams, energy storage and pulse compression technology, non-linear plasma devices such as the plasma focus, “explosive” MHD power generation, EMP simulators, etc. Significant parts of this R&D are being carried out in “purely peaceful” programs, such as controlled fusion energy and accelerators for elementary particle research. So, Soviet development of gyrotron devices for ultra-high-power microwave generation has the “official purpose of providing means for heating plasmas in experimental fusion reactors. And, in fact, gyrotrons can do exactly that. But, the technical advances thus made-or acquired from the West-under “civilian” fusion research programs with international cooperation, can immediately be transferred to secret military programs. Thus, Rudakov’s huge “Angara V” electron beam pulse generator, allegedly constructed for fusion research, was obviously motivated by some other reasons than just the publicized ones. Soviet development of high-power magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators is another interesting example. For many years, Vice-president of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences E.P. Velikhov has directed a large program to perfect this technology for direct conversion of chemical combustion energy into electricity, for a variety of “peaceful” applications.These are figures from 1977, ten years ago. Given intensive Soviet work in this field in the intervening period, we must assume that they can obtain the same or better output with much smaller devices. These and the famous “Pavlovskii” pulse generators play an important role in the Soviet’s own version of the SDI, as power sources for beam weapons. They provide enough power for very devastating types of mobile antipersonnel weapons. The heart of an EP anti-personnel weapon is the system for generating and emitting the electromagnetic radiation. Here the Soviets can draw from their vast experience with all types of military radars, including the large phased-array installations at Krasnoyarsk, Pechora and elsewhere, as well as advanced research into relativistic electron beam devices for ultra-highpower EP generation. The article by Robert Gallagher documents how the Soviets have led the world in development of pulsed gyrotrons and related EP devices covering a wide frequency range. This new hardware is being “spun off” in great quantity and variety as a product of the sil’notochnaya elektronika thrust. Nor have the potentialities of solidstate been neglected. While the Soviets may lag in some of the most exotic microchip technology, they are quite familiar with solid state radar systems applicable (among other things) to miniaturized EP weapons. “Briefcase size” EP weapons for “close-in” Spetsnaz assasinations and related missions, are well within Soviet technological capability. Recently, it was announced that the U.S.S.R. intends to use its new, heavy space-lift system Energiya, with five times the payload of the American space shuttle, to station some very large structures in orbit. Besides a larger version of their present space station, one of the plans is for a huge “solar power station” which would relay its energy to Earth via a highpower laser or a beam of microwaves. (A similar project was considered by the U.S. NASA, but rejected because of the of inadvertently irradiating populated areas.) With a proposed several gigawatts of continuous power at its disposal, such a station could carry out weather modification as well as electromagnetic warfare on a large scale. Of course, compact nuclear reactors (which the Soviets are already using in radar reconnaissance satellites), especially in a pulsed mode, and MHD devices, could be much better energy sources for a military system. given a sufficient supply of energy, a large, phased-array EP system in orbit could attack entire cities, with loss of life comparable to nuclear weapons, but without collateral damage. However, it is not necessary to station EP weapons in space in order to have firepower on a “strategic” scale. The Soviets have been early masters at combining their knowledge of geophysics and non-linear wave propagation to develop novel types of over-the-horizon radar. Using combinations of phased-array installations with a very large effective aperture, it is theoretically possible to project lethal electromagnetic signals over thousands of kilometers. At shorter ranges, incoming missiles and aircraft might be destroyed using EMP-like effects. Soviet activities should be closely watched in these respects, especially in view of the potential “dual purpose” exploitation of certain facilities. (The following list is not intended to be comprehensive, but merely exemplifies extensive Soviet scientific efforts in fields relevant to EP weaponry. The interested reader will find further literature through the cited publications.)” All-Union Conference on High-Current Electronics, Novosibirsk 1986 (conference proceedings, in Russian). DOCUMENTS O.V. Betsky, A.V. Putvinsky, “Biological Effects of Millimeter Waves of Low Intensity” (Russian) and M.V. Golant, T.B. Rebrovak, “The Analogy between Certain Systems of Living Organism and Technical UHF between Certain Systems of Living Organisms and Technical UHF Devices,” (Russian in Radioelektronika 29, Nr.10, 1986. G.I. Budker, “The Gyrocon: An Efficient Relativistic High- Power VHF generator,” Particle Accelerators 10, 1979. N.D. Deyatkov, E.A. Gel’vich, M.B. Golant, “Radiophysical Aspects of the Use in Medicine of Energetic and Informational Action of Electromagnetic Radiation,” (Russian), Seria Elektronika SVC (UHF Electronics), Nr. 9(333), 1981. A.G. Gurvich, Mitogenetic Analysis of the Excitation of the Nervous System, Amsterdam 1937; “Une theorie du champ biologique,” Bibliotheca Biotheorectica, Ser. D, II. See also Michael Lipkind, “Gurwitschs Theorie vom Biologischem Feld,” in the German-language magazine Fusion, 8.Jg., 1987, Nr.4. V.M. Inyushin, D.R. Chekurov, Laser Biostimulation and Bioplasma, (Russian), Alma Ata 1975. S. Kassel, “Soviet Development of Gyrotrons,” RAND Corp. Report R-3377-ARPA, May 1986. V.P.Kaznacheev, L.P. Mikhailova, Ultraweak Radiation in Intercellular Interactions, (Russian) U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 1981. V.M. Koldayev, “Pharmacological Correction of Acute Microwave Effects,” (Russian) Biologiecheskiye Nauki, 1, 1987. V.I. Vernadsky, The Biosphere, 1926 (Russian and French editions). Editor’s note. Here are more substantiating articles in support of Tennenbaum’s information. It is in list format. Liebig,Michael.(1988). Radio-Frequency Weapons: Strategic Context and Implications. Executive Intelligence Review. Pg. 42. Michael Liebig is Managing Director of EIR nachrichtenagentur GmbH in Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. The following paper was presented at conferences in the Federal Republic of Germany, France, and Italy. “…It is obvious that the whole complex of RF technologies, precisely because of the vast potential for military application, is highly classified. Detailed information on RF systems is extremely scant in the public domain. Yet we do know the scientific-technological basics of RF systems and their interaction with biological and other soft targets. While operational RF weapon systems may not yet exist as such, it can be stated categorically, that not just research, but development work towards operational RF weapons, is underway in the East and West, especially in the East. Pg. 40. “Radio-frequency weapons” is a misleading name, carried over from a pragmatic understanding of earlier stages of electronic warfare. For example, it was thought, mistakenly, that the use of microwaves as antipersonnel weapons depended upon the heating effects of such waves upon targeted material. Today, it has been shown that properly tuned electromagnetic pulses have mortal effects at levels of energy-deposit as low as two or three orders of magnitude below those required to kill cell-tissue by means of induced thermal effects. This comparison illustrates the importance of the term “non-linear effects.” The most important of the near-term applications of non-linear electromagnetic effects are in the domain of optical biophysics, either as strategic or tactical anti-personnel weapons, or to produce global effects within the biosphere surrounding those personnel. However, there is also the prospect of disintegrating non-organic material, as well as the disruption of apparatus, through the same class of technologies. In applying the notion of technological attrition to all such electromagnetic-pulse weapons as a general class, it is the principles causing all of the indicated range of effects which must be considered as a unit for purposes of shaping strategic doctrine. All of the weaponry based upon “new physical principles,” including lasers, particle beams, and non-linear electromagnetic-pulse effects, belong, together with the role of high temperature superconductivity, to the domain of sub-atomic physics. Modern high-energy physics, especially that focused upon so-called “force free” status of plasmas, shows that sub-atomic phasespace has a distinct, Kepler-Gauss sort of inherent curvature. It is also shown, that non-linear effects of coherent electromagnetic pulses, as phenomena of the macro-scale, are rooted in the non-linear physics of the curvature of “force-free,” least-action states in the sub-atomic domain. One of the most important lines of inquiry to this effect today, is modern optical biophysics’ attention to the decisive role of precisely tuned, inherently coherent electromagnetic pulses in living processes. Conceptually, this new work belongs to the tradition of Pasteur’s work on optical biophysics and the definition of living processes presented by Luca Pacioli and Leonardo da Vinci nearly 500 years ago. Essentially, modern instruments permit us to detect and measure localized coherent pulses in the range of quanta of emission, leading into what is called today “non-linear spectroscopy” of living processes. The comparison of the results obtained in this way in biological research, with lessons learned from high-energy physics of forcefree plasma states, is the key to design of strategic and tactical antipersonnel assault weapons and related applications.” Frazer, James W. PhD and Frazer, Joyce E.(1988, Mar.Apr.)How Radiofrequency Waves Interact with Living Systems.21st Century.Pg. 50.Dr. Frazer, adjunct professor of pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio. Dr. Frazer was featured as a weapons expert on CNN’s Special Report,1985 and discussed his ten year Air Force career and on electromagnetic effects. His conclusion that “radiofrequency weapons could be the wild-card in the arms race.” “The nonthermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on living cells offer clues as to what is life, as well as to understanding Soviet research on the possibility of controlling human thought and emotional experience.” Pg. 54. “In earlier work, Adey’s group had shown a modulation sensitive effect on calcium efflux from chick brains. These findings created considerable controversy, but were completely substantiated by work done in Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) laboratories at Research Triangle Park in North Carolina. The subsequent history of their group is of interest. Adey’s group continued with practical and theoretical studies of nonlinear response of biological systems to low-intensity fields-but with nearly annual cuts in funding levels. The federal agencies monitoring that work have been fragmented and the people either left or transferred to other fields of endeavor. Price, Frazer, Mori, and all of the people performing the original lymphocyte experiments have resigned, been victims of reductions in force, gone into other areas of research, or retired. Thus, an area of research of great interest to theoretical biology has been very effectively choked off.” Wellborn Stanley & Daniloff, Nicholas.(1984, Oct. 1`). Can U.S. Hold Its Lead Over Soviets in Science Race? U.S News and World Report.Pg 53. “The Soviets, for example, experiment extensively in parapsychology and psychic warfare,” in modification of weather and in the biological effects of microwave and other electromagnetic fields. Much of this research is given high priority. Commission on Security and Cooperation In Europe 102nd Congress First Session. The Moscow Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe 10 Sept.-4 Oct.1991. Pg. 9. “Many individual Soviet citizens also attended, seeking help in redressing grievances against the Soviet system after decades of lawlessness and arbitrary administration of justice. Complaints ranged from unjustified loss of employment and placement in psychiatric hospitals to subjection to spacebased rays launched and maintained by Soviet security organs. The U.S. delegation was able to do little more than listen to these individuals and forward their complaints to the Soviet delegation or the relevant republican authorities, suggesting to the Soviet delegation that it address the problems of these individuals.” Baker, CB.(1997?). Youth Action News.Pg. 6-7 the 1980 book: Human Possibilities: Mind Exploration in the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe, was written by a leading U.S. scientific researcher in parapsychology, Stanley Krippner, Ph.D. The book described the 1960 discoveries of Y.A. Kholodov, a leading Soviet expert on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the brain. …Krippner continued: “These Soviet attempts to construct holographic models resembles the work of Karl Pribram, who has suggested not only that sensory information is relayed in bits and pieces to be sequentially reconstructed by neuron interaction, but also that sensory cells can interact as to form the sort of interference pattern typified by a hologram.” Baker, CB.(1984?).Electronic Mind-Control. “At the 1979 U.S. Psychotronic Association conference, Lt. Col. Thomas E. Bearden provided additional information about soviet usage of ELF for mind control …In 1968, Litisitsyn, who happens to run the documentation center (in the U.S.S.R.) which has all the medical information there, wrote a paper…reporting that the U.S.S.R. had ‘succeeded in controlling the induction…of images and sensations… into another biological system–a human being.” “…Litisitsyn received his Ph.D. in highly esoteric, nonlinear, mathematical brain-wave theory… “Litisitsyn’s paper reported that the Soviets broke the genetic code of the human brain. “they worked out 23 EEG band-wave lengths, 11 of which were totally independent. So if you can manipulate those 11,youcan do anything to that living system it normally can do itself–anything at all. This is all from a paper in the (U.S.) Defense Documentation Center–1968, translation from the Soviet Union.” “…the relationship between Soviet ELF signals and the Litisitsyn paper was described in a 1978 documentation packet on ELF issued by the Planetary Association for Clean Energy. … The P.A.C.E. documentation continued: “Litisitsyn also reported that the Soviet scientists have developed and fitted a theory to actual brain wave measurements, and could insert material on electromagnetic carriers, directly into the brain and could control whether or not the process stimulated conscious awareness of the individual.” …The monitoring of time coherent and phase locked psychoactive modulations suggests strongly the following: The psychoactive modulation effectively locks -in the multiple carrier frequencies (say 11 to 23). On these locked -in multichannels, braincoded information is inserted, feeding it directly into the captured targetbrains.” “Potentially, almost anything could be inserted in the target brain/mind systems., and such insertions would be processed by the biosystems as intercranially-generated data/effects. Words, phrases, images, sensations, and emotions could be directly inserted and experienced in the biological targets as internal states, modes, emotions thoughts, and ideas….” Wortz, Edward C.et al.(198?)An Investigation of Soviet Psychical Research. in Mind at Large. pg. 235. “The term psychotronics was coined by a French journalist after the analogy with electronics, bionics, nucleonics, and so forth. the Soviets have devised their own term-psychoenergetics. Pg.249 “A review of possible NBIT (novel biophysical information transfer) transmission mechanism that are compatible with current modern physics yields three schemes. 1. VLF and ELF electromagnetic waves. 2. Neutrinos, based on the photon theory of neutrinos. 3. Quantum-mechanical waves, based on the schizophysical interpretation of basic quantum mechanical theory. Presently, most U.S. and soviet experiments on psychic phenomena, as well as the use of the law of parsimony, would point to ELF/VLF mechanisms, but the other two possibilities cannot be ruled out. Chapter Four What Scientists are saying about brain research? What physics, engineering and biology is needed to develop mind control technology? What do scientist believe it takes to decode the brain? What is the level of neurological research today? The answers are conclusive. Will Russian and Soviet scientists develop neurological weapons on animals or humans? It is logical to believe the many claims by victims that brain functions and every nerve of the body can be controlled remotely with current technology. Here is a list of what distinguished scientists are saying about neurotechnologies. These are just a few of many examples. Russell, Christine.(1976, Feb. 23).Are Computer Hookups to the Brain Next? The Ultimate in Technology Predicted. Washington Star. “…Such a prospect, dependent upon progress in ‘breaking the internal codes of the human mind,” might be possible in as little as 20 years or may take “several decades more,” according to Dr. Adam V. Reed.[Rockefeller University scientist]. But the 30-year-old experimental psychologist, who was earlier trained as an electrical engineer, expects to see “electronic extensions” of the brain within his own lifetime. His futuristic speculation was part of a symposium on “Man-Computer relations” yesterday at the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting here. Reed acknowledged the need to protect against the dangerous applications of “thought control” -turning human beings into virtual robots-but his emphasis was on what he saw as potential benefits. …The main limit, however, is the difficulty of unraveling the internal language of the brain. …”I think there will necessarily be intermediate steps before people would even want direct hookups,” said Dr. John McCarthy of Stanford University’s department of computer sciences.” Greenfield, Susan.(1995). Journey to the Centers of the Mind. Towards A Science of Consciousness. W.A. Freeman & Co. NY. Pg. 196. “If we could explain exactly how consciousness is generated by groups of neurons under certain conditions, it would also mean that we had the ability to manipulate on e another’s consciousness to such a degree that it could lead to the effective annihilation of the individual. This specter is comparable to the ultimate, Frankenstein-like feat of the molecular biologist in creating organic life. Whether or not such a world would be a good place in which to live can only again be the stuff of science fiction.” Connor Steve.(1995, May 21).Science:The Last Great Frontier: The Brain is the Ultimate Enigma.The Independent(London).Pg52. “The human brain is the most complicated structure in the known universe. …No superlative, it seems, is too grand to explain what is happening to brain research, precisely midway through the international “Decade of the brain” Gerald Fischbach, professor of neurobiology at Harvard, believes philosophers inquiring into the human condition can no longer ignore the brain experiments that are “among the most urgent challenging and exciting” in all of science. “Our survival and probably the survival of this planet depend on a more complete understanding of the human mind.” he says. …. Cornwell, John.(1994,Sept.4).A Mindfield For the Brains Trust.Sunday Times. Lexis- Nexis. “…Penrose the 62-year old Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at Oxford…who made his name by collaborating with Stephen Hawking in the 1960s on black holes, was drawn to the consciousness debate in the late 1980s… …In Shadows of the Mind, Penrose demonstrates that mathematics and physics are more central to the problems of consciousness than computer science or even biology. At the same time, he urges that physics must take consciousness into its scope. “…We must look for a feature of the brain,” he says, “that can mediate between the microscopic world of quantum physics and our everyday realm of classical physics.” According to the view prevalent in neurobiology, brain action is entirely controlled by the interconnected system of “neuron switches” and nothing else: there is no plausible role for the subleties of quantum action. But basing himself on research of Stuart Hameroff, an anaesthetist at the University of Arizona, and the work of Herbert Frohlich, a noted physicist who has made important advances in the study of superconductivity, Penrose believes he has come up with a suitable site and structure for quantum activity in the brain. In his new book he describes how cell structures known as microtubules, found in the branches of neurons (brain cells), have the ability to shrink and expand between the microscopic realms of the quantum and our familiar world of switches,” says Penrose. “The microtubules are themselves microscopic tubes made of proteins called tubulins. Each tubulin individually seems to behave something like a switch, increasing neuronal numerosity by something like 10,000m” If Penrose is right, his book may be the first accessible report to a general readership about the site, if not the actual substance, of the Holy Grail of consciousness the precise point where quantum activity interacts with classical physical activity in the brain. …and by body-soul dualists such as the veteran neurophysiologist Sir John Eccles, who believes that a quantum physical effect mediates our spiritual souls and our physical brains. …Our conscious brains, he declares, are woven from subtle physical ingredients that somehow enable us to take advantage of the profound organzisation of our mathematically underpinned universe… …Penrose confesses he is very far from explanations; but he is adamant that no clear answers will come unless the interrelating features of physics, mathematics, biology and psychology are seen to come together… Jibu, Mari, Hagan, Scott, Hameroff, Stuart R., Pribram, Karl H., Yasue, Kunio.(1993, August 10)Quantum Optical Coherence in Cytoskeletal Microtubules: Implications for Brain Function. BioSystems 32(1994)195-209. “Abstract ‘Laser-like,’ long-range coherent quantum phenomena may occur biologically within cytoskeletal microtubules. This paper presents a theoretical prediction of the occurrence in biological media of the phenomena which we term ‘superradiance’ and ‘self-induced transparency’. Interactions between the electric dipole field of water molecules confined within the hollow core of microtubules and the quantized electromagnetic radiation field are considered, and microtubules are theorized to play the roles of non-linear coherent optical devices. Superradiance is a specific quantum mechanical ordering phenomenon with characteristic times much shorter than those of thermal interaction. Consequently, optical signaling(and computation) in microtubules would be free from both thermal noise and loss. Superradiant optical computing in networks of microtubules and other cytoskeletal structures may provide a basis for biomolecular cognition and a substrate for consciousness. Moravec, Hans.(1988). Mind Children The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence. Editor’s note; Moravec is an MIT professor, well-known and was on the Learning Channel on Dec 16, 1997 on the program Future Fantastic. He explains artificial intelligence and replacing the brain with a computer. “Perhaps, with advances in high-resolution scanning, it will be possible to achieve this effect without messy surgery: you might simply wear some kind of helmet or headband that monitored and altered the interhemispheric traffic with carefully controlled electromagnetic fields. Rucker, Rudy.(1997, April 25).Imagined Worlds”.International Herald Tribune. Pg. 4. “By Freeman Dyson. …Harvard. Reviewed by Rudy Rucker. “The dominant science of the 21st century will be biology.” [physicist] Dyson expects great advances in two areas of biological knowledge: the gene and the brain. He suggests that the first may give us pet dinosaurs, and the second may bring about “radiotelepathy.”…”Radiotelepathy” is a word coined by Dyson to express a surprising but logical idea: You could have something like a cordless phone inside your head. That is, “After the organization of the central nervous system has been explored and understood, the way will be open to develop and use the technology of electromagnetic brain signals.” Dyson, Freeman.(1997)Imagined Worlds.President and Fellows of Harvard College. Acknowledgments. “This book grew out of a set of lectures given in May 1995 at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem… …The idea of radiotelepathy first appeared, so far as I know, in the sciencefiction novel Last and First Men, written by Olaf Stapledon, in 1931, …in which the cells of a multicellular creature communicate with each other by means of electric and magnetic fields… The chief barrier to progress in neurophysiology is the lack of observational tools. To understand in depth what is going on in the brain, we need tools that can fit inside or between the neurons and transmit reports of neural events to receivers outside. …observing instruments…with rapid response, high band-width and high spacial resolution…There is no law of physics that declares that such an observational tool to be impossible. We know that high-frequency electromagnetic signals can be propagated through brain tissue for distances of the order of centimeters. We know that microscopic generators and receivers of electromagnetic radiation are possible. We know that modern digital data-handling technology is capable of recording and analyzing the signals emerging from millions of tiny transmitters simultaneously. All that is lacking in order to transform these possibilities into an effective observational tool is the neurological equivalent of integrated-circuit technology. We need a technology that allows us to build and deploy large arrays of small transmitters inside a living brain, just as integrated-circuit technology allows us to build large arrays of small transistors on a chip of silicon. …Radioneurology is in principle only an extension of the existing technology of magnetic resonance imaging, which also used radio-frequency magnetic fields to observe neural structures. A rough estimate based on the available band-width indicates that a million transmitters could be monitored through each patch of brain surface with size equal to the radio wave-length. The factor of a million is the ratio between the radio band-width, of the order of hundreds of millions of cycles per second, and the band-width of a neuron, of the order of hundred of cycles….” Greenfield, Susan.(1996, Feb.25).Science: From Socrates to Silicon Chip?; Artificial Intelligence has evolved so far… So are computers nearly conscious? The neuroscientist Susan Greenfield argues that is all depends on what ‘conscious means.” “…Hence there is obviously a strong chemicalselective element in determining consciousness. ..Admittedly, advanced machines are no longer in thrall to digital on/off operations, and a silicon “retina” and “neuron” have been built with analogue (ie dimmer switch) properties. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) This is a list of excerpts from books and articles to the demonstrate the level of brain mapping and reading today. SQUID seems to be the basis of classified technology used to read brainwaves remotely. In The Brain Code, Mechanisms of Information Transfer and the Role of the Corpus Callosum by Noram D. Cook, 1986, he writes Phrases such as the ‘brain code are used to describe the set of fundamental rules concerning how information is stored and transmitted from site to site within the brain. …how large groups of neurons transmit the images, thoughts and feelings which we suspect are the fundamental units of our psychological lives. …The perspective on brain function discussed in the following chapters is not claimed to be a complete unraveling of the brain code, but I do believe that it is the beginning of same and that the direction of future developments is already clearly indicated.” Coyle, Anna.(1992, Sept.14). Science and Technology: The Machine That Watches You Think. Independent(London). Pg.14. “Doctors and medical scientists soon will be able to watch the human brain “thinking”. With the aid of a device no bigger than a pinhead, they will be able to see exactly where and how electrical signals are traveling around the brain. …”We are aiming to build up an image of where the current is flowing,”says Dr. Steven Swithenby, director of the Biomagnetism group at Open University… … Squid is the acronym for superconducting quantum interference device, and it measures magnetic flux or field extremely accurately at ultra-low levels, such as the level reached when a group of neurons in the brain is triggered. The device is made of a ring of superconducting material, usually niobium metal, a few millimetres wide, with a slice of insulator, a few atoms thick, sanwiched into the loop. when an electric current is applied to this superconductor, the flowing current generates a magnetic field around the wire loop. Inside the superconducting loop this magnetic field is extremely sensitive to any changes in magnetism. If a change in magnetic field is detected, the current flow in the Squid changes to re-adjust the field strength to counter the external force. …But there is still the problem of interpreting the information. “We can look at what is going on in the head, but it takes a lot of mathematics to unscramble the whole mess so that we can make a sensible image,” Dr. Swithenby says. … The magnetic field generated by the brain in response to an external stimulus, and measured by the Squid, is about 100 millions times weaker than the Earth’s magnetic field, and a million times weaker than the magnetic fields around overhead power cables. … A less expensive and more practical approach, used at the Open University, is to couple the Squid to another device known as a gradiometer. In effect the gradiometer is a matched pair of (nonsuperconducting) magnetometers placed between the Squid and the patient’s head. One of the pair measures the external magnetic field outside the brain, the other measured the total field, including the contribution from the brain, and the difference between the two is measured by the Squid….The so-called high – temperature superconductors-metal oxides that can work at temperatures of up to 100 degrees above absolute zero- are the next stage in the development of workable machines. …”In three or four years’ time, who knows what Squids will be made of?” Squids are not new: they were first postulated by the theoretical physicist Anthony Leggett at the University of Illinois in the early Eighties.” Author’s note. These articles give examples of how thoughts could be detected remotely. It is not impossible, especially with the will to develop this technology before the Soviets do, for example. Hanley, John M.D.(1985,June17).Aviation Week.Pg. 156. “…It has never been necessary to stick something into pilots, or anybody else for the purpose of obtaining brainwave signals. It was pointed out 50 years ago by B.H.C. Matthews that non-invasive scalp electrodes provide the necessary sensing, and that is the method most in use around the world today. As for sticking something onto pilots,the evolution of sensors has a branch of non-adhesive, contact electrodes, highly stable examples of which were developed in our Space Biology Laboratory almost 20 years ago under NASA contracts, and put to practical use in a variety of environments, both space and terrestrial. The continued evolution of the electrode has inevitably traversed the path from nonadhesiv and contact to remote, noncontact sensing. Fourteen years ago, Adey and Silver, of the University of California at Los Angeles and Aerospace Corp., respectively, at that time, proposed cryomagnetic sensing of the EEG. Magnetoencephalograms were obtained by Cohen of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology one year later. Moreover, sophisticated machine recognition of EEG correlates of states of awareness from the subleties of pilot reclination to sleep in the space environment have been achieved within the last two decades. Clearly, dogmatic assertions that present technology has remained at the stickon or -in electrode and gross delta wave era belong with scriptural championing of slingshots as state-of-the-art weaponry. No author. (1989, July 5). Magnetic Fields of the Brain. PR Newswire. Lexis-Nexis. “The human brain is alive with pulsating magnetic fields. …The brain’s nerve cells, called neurons, are triggered by small electrical currents. This has been known for decades and doctors routinely record the intensity and patterns of these electrical brain waves. …Today, highly sensitive detectors can spot even these faint magnetic fields and [physicist Samuel] Williamson a member of the American Physical Society, and his colleagues are busy mapping the brain’s magnetic activity. Every brain function, from imagining a pay raise to lifting a forefinger, uses the neurons of a specific location. Detecting magnetic fields can pinpoint these geographical areas. In one instance, Williamson discovered which part of the brain generated a magnetic field when a subject moved a forefinger. Moving the thumb produced fields from a slightly different spot. “Our sensory and motor systems are tied to highly specific brain areas,” says Williamson. “in one experiment we passed a brushover the tip-center and base of a person’s finger. We found that this produced magnetic fields from three distinct areas of the brain.” Magnetic research of the brain is of great interest to surgeons, doctors, and psychologists. With this tool specific brain locations are being linked to specific body activities. In the area of psychology, monitoring the brain’s magnetic activity is helping determine the nature of imagination and thought processes. …this feature is from the American Institute of Physics’ Science Report.” No author.(1996,Oct.8).Pictoral Proof of Brain Damage Caused by Cocaine and Alcohol Seen in New Quantitative EEG Studies:BEAM Study Provides New Light on Brain Disorders. PR Newswire. “Measurements of “brain waves” using state-of -the-art quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) — or brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) demonstrate that both cocaine and alcohol abuse/dependence significantly worsen such pre-existing brain abnormalities as attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression, mental distress, anxiety disorder, and paranoid schizophrenia, according to medical research by Eric R. Braverman, MD. and Kenneth Blum, Ph.D. both affiliated with the PATH Foundation, a not-for-profit scientific foundation of Princeton, New Jersey. …since they[QEEG and BEAM] are relatively easily, quick and potentially inexpensive to administer…Unlike other brain imaging techniques, it can be administered in a doctor’s office. …Other work by Drs. Braverman and Blum, as well as by other researchers, suggests that a mentally ill population– including teens and adults–have strongly disturbed brain waves even prior to their substance abuse. This study again documents that the mentally ill population have brain electrical and chemical imbalances. …BEAM is a brain stress test using light, sound, cognition, and electrical stimulation to generate dramatic pictures of total brain health.. High-temperature Superconductors (HTSC) contains the theory and basis for the technology used for remotely detecting brainwaves from a distance. Currently the military is developing it for remote sensing. While this may not be the classified mind reading technology used today, the point is to see that the level of technology is possible and the scientific theory behind mind reading can be figured out, even if it is classified. Please note that the Jonathan Tennenbaum article mentions HTSC and it’s use for mind control weapons. Here is a list of articles on HTSC with brief comments. Hewish, Mark.(1992,June 1). High-temperature Superconductors. International Defense Review. Vol.25. No.6; Pg. 624. “The United States government Office Of Technology Assessment believes that electronic components using high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) will be available by the mid-1990s….DARPA(the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) has awarded several contracts for work on HTSCs. E-Systems’Melpar Division leads a team–including several universities and specialist companies such as Superconductor Technologies and Conductus–that has a $9.7 million contract from the agency to demonstrate a feasible approach to defense applications of HTSCs by 1994. …HTSCs first made their appearance in 1986, when two researchers at the IBM laboratories in Zurich–who won a Nobel prize for their work… Radio-frequency energy encounters some resistance even in a superconductor, but this is negligible at frequencies below 1 GHz. …Most radars of military interest operate at frequencies below 120GHz… …Superconductors additionally exhibit the Meissner effect. A magnetic field will not penetrate a superconductor cooled to below its transition temperature. This effect is exploited in electromagnetic rail guns, and superconductors are also almost perfect materials for magnetic and electromagnetic shielding. SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) have military applications in magnetometers used to detect submarines and mines. SQUIDs can detect the most tenuous magnetic fields, even those generated by brain cells. They exploit the properties of a Josephson junction, which is constructed from two superconductors separated by a non-superconducting layer. Lockheed has built an HTSC SQUID… …The phenomenon of superconductivity was discovered in 1911, but the first high-temperature superconductors(HTSCs) did not become available until 75 years later. Rose, Stephen.(1994, Dec.1). Off Line: The Life of Brain. Guardian(London). Pg.14. “…Helsinki is the site for Europe’s most powerful neuromagnetic measuring system. …In 1929, the Swiss amateur physiologist Hans Berger taped a set of recoding electrodes to a person’s scalp and found he could record continuous bursts of electricity pulsing through the brain. …As every Olevel student knows, where there is an electric current, there is a magnetic field at right angles to it. So too in the brain – except that because the currents are tiny, so are the magnetic fields, around one millionth billionth of a Tesla. …Then you can measure the oscillating millisecond fluxes of the brain in real time. Furthermore, unlike the EEG, granted enough mathematical sophistication and computing power, you get a good idea of the location of the electromagnetic source in the brain. In helsinki the neuromag is linked to an online recording system that enables an experimenter sitting outside the sealed room to scan the records of the 122 channels arrayed across the inmate’s head, I was strongly reminded of that ancient philosopher’s dream, a ‘cerebroscope’ that would enable a person to observe their own thoughts. Magnetoenceph

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